One of the Titanic's survivors was also a key participant in the movement for womens' suffrage.
lsie Bowerman’s mother, Edith Barber, lived at Sinnock Cottage, Hastings Old Town, and worked as a draper’s assistant. About 1888 she married her employer, William Bowerman. He was a town councillor from 1885-88 andowned rental properties and a chain of drapers’ shops in Hastings and St. Leonards, in which he employed ten people.1 William was 58 and Edith 25 when Elsie was born, on 18th December 1889 at Tunbridge Wells. In 1890 William sold his chain of shops and retired. The 1891 Census indicates that he was ‘living on own means’ at 145 London Road, St Leonards, with his wife, baby daughter and two servants.
Elsie was raised in comfortable, but unostentatious circumstances. Her parents took great interest in politics and public affairs, both local and national. Although wealthy, her parents were very careful with money. William frequently appealed against local rates and had many rental properties reassessed in his favour, a practice continued by his wife and daughter after his death. His accumulation of properties is central to Elsie and Edith’s future since it provided an unearned income without which their lives might have been very different. William died in 1895 and Edith erected choir-stalls in his memory in St. Matthew’s Church, Silverhill. A commemorative brass plaque is attached, facing the organ.
One of Elsie’s earliest memories was of Sunday evenings when her father played hymns on the piano.2 She took private piano lessons from Fraulein Bischoff at Hastings & St Leonards Ladies College,3 and in 1900 passed her examination with Honours. In 1901 Elsie was sent as a boarder to the prestigious Wycombe Abbey School. Then 11, she was the youngest girl there. Elsie recalled that ‘the anticipated tears were firmly suppressed’. Such early independence and long separations from home stood her in good stead for her later travels. Her intelligence became evident when she achieved first place in a form of eleven girls nearly two years her senior.
Elsie left school in April 1907 and stayed a while in Paris before beginning her studies in Mediaeval and Modern Languages at Girton College, Cambridge, in 1908. She was elected representative of first year students, a member of the committee of a missionary society, and was in many college teams. She especially enjoyed hockey.
In 1907, Edith, now 43, married 67-year-old Alfred Chibnall, a wealthy farmer.4 This union is somewhat mysterious: it appears that they parted within two years, certainly before 1910, from which time Edith began to use the name ‘Mrs. Bowerman Chibnall’ instead of ‘Mrs. Chibnall’. He is omitted from Elsie’s correspondence, is missing from her photograph collections and did not accompany Edith and Elsie on their holidays. When Alfred died in 1929 he left his entire estate of £10,000 to male friends. Perhaps he disapproved of his wife’s involvement in politics.
By 1910 there were six societies in Hastings campaigning for women to have the parliamentary vote. By 1908 Edith had joined the most militant - the WSPU 5 – which Elsie joined at Girton in 1909. She wore suffragette badges in lectures, shared and sold copies of Votes for Women, and organised debates. Edith was an official of the Women’s Tax Resistance League in Hastings and ran the WSPU shop at 5 Grand Parade during the 1910 election. During the university holidays, Elsie was an Organiser for the Hastings Branch of the WSPU.
Edith was involved in the London activities of the WSPU. She gave a banner to be carried on a mass demonstration in Hyde Park. Designed by Sylvia Pankhurst, it bore the words Rebellion to tyrants is obedience to God.6 Edith was one of ten women chosen to accompany Mrs. Pankhurst on a now-famous deputation to Parliament in 1910, which the police obstructed and which turned violent, resulting in 119 arrests and many injuries. Using notepaper and envelopes blindstamped Votes for Women, Elsie wrote to Edith:
… Needless to say I have been simply wild with excitement these last two days... I am awfully glad you got on so well on Friday ... What a pity it seems that you have to go through it all again tomorrow… I shall be frightfully anxious to hear how you fare.
Edith was, in fact, injured on her second deputation.
Dearest Mother, Thank you for your letter received this morning. I am so sorry you have had such a bad time. It is sickening that this endless fighting has to go on. I am frightfully sorry Mrs. Pankhurst & Mrs. Haverfield were arrested.
In 1911 Elsie, aged 21, passed the Cambridge Tripos examination with a Class II degree and around this time she also came into her inheritance from her father. This included a number of rental properties to which she added by further purchases. The income they provided left Elsie free from the necessity to work. She and her mother had a large income: in 1918 Elsie’s unearned income amounted to over £700 p.a., the equivalent of about £70,000 today. However, neither of them indulged in extravagant purchases or high living. They lived modestly, mending not replacing, buying sale goods, and saving money whenever they could. Their ‘penny-wise’ attitude is exemplified in a letter from Elsie in Paris, in which she warns her mother to bring her own soap as, to her annoyance, she was charged a franc by the hotel for one bar. Yet, just months later, they blew £55 on two first-class tickets to New York on board the most luxurious and glamorous steamship ever built.
In April 1912, Elsie and Edith, now aged 22 and 48, travelled from Warrior Square station to Southampton. They were to visit William Bowerman’s relations, and a friend, Mr Guthrie, in Ohio, and would afterwards travel across the USA and Canada. They occupied Cabin 33 on Deck E of the RMS Titanic, which set off on 12th April. The story of its sinking, two days later, is so well-known it need not be repeated. Over 1000 were drowned, but the famous ‘women and children first’ tradition, supplemented by the less-often quoted ‘first class passengers take priority’ maxim ensured that Elsie and Edith were among the 700 saved. Elsie wrote:
The silence when the engines stopped was followed by a steward knocking on our door and telling us to go on deck. This we did and were lowered into life-boats, where we were told to get away from the liner as soon as we could in case of suction. This we did, and to pull an oar in the midst of the Atlantic in April with ice-bergs floating about, is a strange experience.
The two women were in Lifeboat 6 with about 22 others including Frederick Fleet, the lookout who had first spotted the iceberg. The 1997 film Titanic featured several scenes in this lifeboat because it accommodated two of the main characters, Molly Brown and the fictional Ruth Dewit Bukater, mother of the heroine Rose. The boat was the third to be lowered, at 0055hrs. Lifeboat 6 was under the command of Quartermaster Robert Hitchens, who would later come under intense attack for not saving more passengers. Captain Smith, through a megaphone, ordered the lifeboats to come back to pick up more passengers, but they did not respond. Robert Hitchens refused to go back because he feared that, when the Titanic sank, she would produce a suction force and the boilers would explode, killing everyone on the lifeboats. One source claims that Molly demanded that the women be allowed to row to keep warm. Hitchens, protested, but Molly told him he would be thrown overboard if he attempted to stop her. Both men eventually gave in and Molly took control. She ordered the women to row and distributed her furs and other clothing to the freezing passengers.
The boat floated in the middle of the Atlantic all night before being rescued at 0600 and taken to New York by the Carpathia. They were reported safe by Cleveland Plain Dealer and the Hastings & St Leonards Observer. Undeterred, they continued with their itinerary, stayed at a ranch in British Columbia and visited the Klondyke and Alaska. During the trip Elsie wrote an article for the Wycombe Abbey Gazette entitled ‘The Magnetic North’. The pair returned to Hastings as minor celebrities: they were the only Titanic passengers from the town. Edith and Elsie resumed their suffrage activities, publicising meetings and selling ice-cream for the cause.
Their nightmare voyage to New York did not deter either from travelling: they visited Arundel and Loch Lomond in 1913, Betts-y-Coed, Winchester and Rome in 1914, and Dartmoor in 1915. Photographs taken in 1915 show Elsie and her mother in the garden at Heathfield, their country house in Thakeham, with a few close friends, such as the Hon. Evelina Haverfield, Mrs. Peirce, and Miss Hogg and Miss Tristram, both Hastings suffragettes. Few men appear; Mr. Guthrie was one. In contrast to many photographs of middle-class women of that era, Elsie and her young friends were not at all ladylike or dainty; they happily lolled about on the grass with their pets and Edith is seen gardening. Elsie was a sturdy woman of average build: 5’ 5’, with thick brown wavy hair with a centre parting, blue eyes, a low forehead, square chin, straight nose, round face, full mouth and fair complexion. She appears open and sincere, almost tomboyish, with a zest for life, and completely without airs, graces or coquetry.
In July 1916 the Honourable Mrs. Haverfield, now a leading light in the pro-war movement, invited Elsie to go to Serbia as a motor driver. Although 26 years old, Elsie begged her mother’s permission:
Mrs Haverfield has just asked me to go out to Serbia at the beginning of August, to drive a car -May I go? … It is what I’ve been dying to do & drive a car ever since the war started. I should have to spend the week after the procession learning to drive - the cars are Fords … It is really like a chance to go to the front. They want drivers so badly. So do say yes - It is too thrilling for words.
When Edith consented Elsie thanked her, adding, ‘It is good of you always to be so splendidly unselfish - everyone I have met is fearfully envious of me having the chance to go.’ However, a different job was found for Elsie: in September, she became an orderly in the London Unit of the now-famous Scottish Women’s Hospitals, run by Dr. Elsie Inglis.7
The all-female unit had to travel by a most circuitous route - via Scandinavia, Archangel, Moscow and Odessa -to serve the Serbian and Russian armies in Romania. Unfortunately it arrived just as the allies had been defeated. English newspapers carried reports about the women’s units, which, Elsie wrote, ‘make us afraid you will all think we are starving or dead or something whereas we are really having the time of our lives.’ In November 1916 they set up a hospital near the Danube, then had to dismantle it and join the retreat to the Russian frontier. It was bitterly cold and Elsie asked in her almost daily letters home for gloves, scarves and thick stockings, as well as a dozen Kodak Brownie films, Suchard chocolate, and a book of Robert Louis Stevenson’s stories. However, she begged her mother not to send Christmas puddings. In addition to her many letters, Elsie sent telegrams at every opportunity. Despite this, Edith wrote several frantic letters to the headquarters of the Scottish Women’s Hospitals from whom she received repeated reassurance that Elsie’s unit was safe.
Elsie found the experience wonderful. In her detailed pencil-written diary she described pitching tents for the field hospital and serving meals to 250 people with the help of only one Russian, who could not speak English. She told of sleeping in the open just twenty miles from the firing line, of having singing parties with soldiers around camp fires and of cross-country rides with Russian officers. She was in charge of wagon-loads of equipment which frequently got lost and had to be recovered, and all this in the midst of a war. Although Elsie was an orderly, she sometimes helped with the wounded. However, on 1st March she wrote in her diary ‘Life is one long chuckle at present’ and described her shopping sprees, and commented that she sometimes deliberately left her purse behind to curb expenditure. She was in St Petersburg in 1917 and her diary contains not only eyewitness testimony of living in the midst of the Russian Revolution, but it reveals something of her personality, her use of language, and her interests and priorities.
March 13th, 1917.
Great excitement in street - armoured cars rushing up and down - soldiers and civilians marching up and down armed - attention suddenly focussed on our hotel & house next door - rain of shots directed on to both buildings as police supposed to be shooting from top storeys - most exciting. Several shots went through windows. Presently our hotel searched by rebels - came into each room searching for police spy -very nice to us -most polite - several civilians as well as soldiers. One ‘revolutionary’ came into our room to dress -didn’t know how to wear his sword - we had to assist with the strapping up. Much to our disgust all hotel servants also the manager disappeared - nothing to eat picnicked in our rooms. Shooting & shouting continuously all day in the street -several search parties through the hotel at intervals. V. difficult to settle down to anything - sat at hotel window in afternoon, watched crowds in streets, lorries crowded with armed men.
Youths left in charge of the hotel kitchen - armed with ferocious carving knives & muskets. Managed to loot some glasses of milk - all other food locked up. Fresh alarm in hotel in evening when rifle shot suddenly heard in the building. Merely one of the revolutionary sentries. Banged rifle on floor in his excitement & shot went through the ceiling. Rumour that hotel will be fired during the night so we packed our haversacks carefully in case we had to make hurried departure in the night. Retired to bed. Great luck to share such comfortable quarters. [Hotel] Astoria has been sacked & guests turned out. [Female colleagues] went to Embassy in afternoon in case there were any orders for British people
- didn’t get any enlightenment. They ‘wished us luck’ - no other suggestions to offer. At intervals during the day motors rush by - scattered news-sheets & declarations to the people. [Nurses] Brown & Hedges ran into street affray - had to take cover in a canal.
Crowds in streets but much quieter than yesterday. Soldiers maintaining order. Passed houses which had been occupied by police etc where papers in piles burning in the streets - still being thrown on by soldiers. Headquarters of police & detective force burnt to the ground & still burning - people firing at a police stronghold in house above us ... rushed across to take refuge in a church doorway - found the shots were being sent in that direction - presently soldiers came rushing into the building with pistols so we decided to move into doorway of a house in the courtyard - but soldiers came pouring in so we decided to get out while we could. Got out before things became any warmer.
Throughout we have met with the utmost politeness & consideration from everyone. Revolutions carried out in such a peaceful manner really deserve to succeed. Today weapons only seem to be in the hands of responsible people - not as yesterday, carried in many cases by excited youths. Heard that the ministers have now surrendered. Some have been shot, or shot themselves.
[Visited] Anglo-Russian hospital - thankful we are not staying there. They have been under orders to stay indoors all through the revolution - Hotel now quite organised again. Meals etc as usual. Reported that 3600 people have been killed & wounded in street affrays. People have decided to ask the Tsar to abdicate in favour of his son.
In afternoon went down Nevski [Prospect]. Huge crowds in every direction. Presently motor came along - people flocked around - officer & also man in civilian dress made two announcements from the car - viz., that the Tsar had abdicated in favour of his brother Michael & Michael had placed the power in the hands of the people, therefore to all intents & purposes Russia is now a republic. 2.30pm Mar 16th 1917. People cheered and cheered - wildest excitement. Rushed off & fetched ladders to take down the eagles off various public buildings. Rumour that there is a sanguinary revolution in Berlin & that the Kaiser is dead! Seems too good to be true. We spent the evening in wild speculation.
March 17th - 23rd
Went with Walker to be manicured - Went to Russian church in station square. Very full -so came away to another - also crowded. Railway through Finland reopened so we may possibly return home via Norway-We are told we shall have utmost discomfort - no accommodation food or water. Don’t mind if we can only get off home - Eagles on Winter Palace all draped with Red.
March 24th - 25th
Got up 5 am. To station. People at that hour already standing in long queues outside bread shops. Train left 7.40. Very comfy. Travelled through Finland. Sat outside train on step for a long way. Delightful restaurant car and sleeping berths. [25th] Arrived at Tornea Finnish frontier 12 noon. Drove in sleigh over river to Customs House. On by sleigh to Haparanda in Sweden - Drive in sleigh over snow through woods. Most comfy sleighs could lie right back - 1st class sleeping berths most delightful train - spotlessly clean - nice women attendants.
After a short stay in Sweden the unit made its way back via Bergen and Aberdeen, to London Euston Station. Elsie made straight to Mrs. Peirce’s house in Highgate, arriving at midnight on 4th April 1917.
On her return to England, Elsie divided her time between her country house at East Lavington and London, where she was a member of the University Club for Ladies. She received the Certificate of the Russian Medal for Meritorious Service. Never one to rest on her laurels, she soon became involved in another round of public work.
When the war broke out, the suffrage movement had placed its demands on the back-burner. The WSPU became The Women’s Party and encouraged women to volunteer for war work and men to sign up; it opposed pacifism and socialism and tried to halt strikes. Elsie joined the Women’s Party and soon became a paid Organiser. For several months she toured nation-wide with the famous WSPU leaders Flora Drummond and Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst. At each town, Elsie took lodgings and set about organising and advertising mass-meetings: one at Manchester drew 10,000 people. In some places, including Sheffield, she stood on chairs and addressed meetings outside factory gates. Her sphere of responsibility eventually extended as far as Devon, where she organised meetings right until the end of the war. She often shared the platform with Christabel Pankhurst.
More than once while on tour Elsie was mistaken for a Pankhurst. She found the events ‘thrilling’ and felt passionate about her endeavours. She wrote to Edith: ‘It makes one so angry to think that people should need to be urged to patriotism at a time like this.’
In 1918 Elsie became one of the first women Election Agents when she acted in that capacity for Christabel Pankhurst, who stood unsuccessfully for the Women’s Party at Smethwick, in the first General Election in which women were permitted to stand as candidates.8 In 1919 Elsie was Honorary Secretary of Deeds Not Words, a committee formed to collect money to present to Mrs. Pankhurst and Christabel, in recognition of their great financial and personal sacrifice for the suffrage movement.
Aspects of Elsie’s personality are revealed in her letters to Edith during her nationwide tour. Examples of her snobbery, intolerance, faultfinding and complaint include: ‘how tired one gets of the Yorkshire accent - it IS hideous. I do hope I shan’t catch it.’ She sacked her letting agent, Chennells, of Hastings, and took personal control of the rent collection and maintenance of her properties, employing Mr. Jinks, a handyman of 53 Bohemia Rd, and Pettit’s, a firm of builders based at 182 Queen’s Road. Elsie sent all her laundry home during her nation-wide tour and complained in 1918 that her laundress ‘is hopeless! Has sent no clean combinations to wear and no stockings.’
Elsie felt driven to educate people in (conservative) politics and economics, to encourage individual responsibility and enterprise, and to oppose socialism and communism. With these ends in view in 1920 she co-founded the newly-formed ‘Women’s Guild of Empire’, which was eventually to boast 40,000 members in 30 branches. Elsie was honorary secretary for nine years and edited the Guild’s journal The Bulletin (whose slogan was: ‘Women Unite to save the Nation’). The Guild believed that strikes caused misery and unemployment and that unions should keep out of politics. The Guild came to an end in the 1930s.
Having been so involved in political campaigns and war work, and with her large private income obviating the need to earn a wage, it was not until the age of 31 that Elsie turned her attention to a profession. She decided to become a lawyer. She could not have done this very much earlier, in any case, because until the 1919 Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act women were barred from entering most professions. It took a lot of cash, too: initially, £50 deposit and over £50 in fees was demanded. Elsie was accepted as a student by the Middle Temple in 1921 and in 1924 was one of the first women called to the Bar.9 To have completed all the work in just three years was a magnificent achievement, prompting Elsie and Edith to take a celebratory trip to Geneva.
Elsie, based in Pump Court, practised on the South Eastern Circuit. She was the first woman barrister to appear at the Old Bailey when she won a libel action brought by the National Union of Seamen against a communist. In the mid-20s Elsie published a book, The Law of Child Protection and in 1928 the London Evening Standard printed her essay, Why women do not write Utopias .10
Elsie took a great interest in her work and joined The International Federation of Women in Legal Careers, which was founded in Paris in 1928. But in 1938 she felt another vocation calling, so she gave up law and co-founded the Women’s Voluntary Services (WVS). For two years she was Organiser in the Information and Public Meetings department. She then worked briefly for the Ministry of Information before spending three years in the USA as a liaison officer in the BBC Overseas Services. She resigned about 1943-45 to become Chief of General Services to the London office, responsible for conferences. In 1946 she returned to the USA to help set up the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women in New York. Elsie was a representative of the Secretary-General, and was Chief of the Division for the Advancement of Women.11
Elsie may have felt that being a former suffragette would hinder her career, for she makes no mention of her part in the campaign in her entry in the Women’s Who’s Who 1934-5 or the Girton Register in 1948.12
After her return to England in the late 1940s, Elsie spent weekdays at her flat near the Victoria & Albert Museum13 and, from 1951, weekends at a modest flat on the top floor of one of her properties: 23-25 Silchester Road, St Leonards. She had bought these properties in 1913 and converted them into flats. Edith, now 87, was in a nearby nursing home.14 As a wealthy and powerful woman, Elsie was an unusual person to find in a working-class area of tradesmen and small shops. She was then 63, an assertive, no-nonsense woman, very stout and grey-haired. She drove an impressive black Rover car and is reputed to have once had a council parking restriction lifted because it inconvenienced her.
In Elsie’s letters and other documents there is no hint of a liaison or intimate relationship with anyone. One day she told her ground floor tenants that she was having her flat refurbished because a ‘close lady friend’ was coming to live with her. Soon afterwards, they were shocked to find her sobbing on the stairs: her friend had died suddenly. Elsie, a woman not given to displays of emotion or weakness, was inconsolable.15
After her mother died in October 1953, Elsie had no further need of a home in St Leonards. She sold the Silchester Road flats in 1961 and purchased Batchelors, a 17thcentury house at Cowbeech Hill, near Hailsham. Her legal career ended in 1963 when she closed her chambers. She gave up her car (possibly owing to failing eyesight) and travelled everywhere by mini-cab with a regular female driver. The size of the house is excessive for one person and suggests that Elsie had frequent and numerous house-guests.
During the sixties she wrote articles for Wycombe Abbey’s magazine, and in 1965 produced a 95-page book about its founder Dame Frances Dove, entitled Stands There a School. She was interviewed by suffrage historian David Mitchell on 11 November 1964, and by historian Antonia Raeburn in the late sixties. She and suffragette Grace Roe were featured in the February 1975 edition of Calling All Women. She is also acknowledged in Raeburn’s book, ‘Militant Suffragettes’, as ‘Miss Elsie Bowerman M. A. Barrister-at-Law’ for relating her mother’s experience in a suffragette riot.
Elsie had carried out voluntary work for the United Girls’ School Mission since her schooldays. Between 1931 and 1962 she was successively treasurer, secretary and chairman of the Finance and General Purposes Committee, and was then chairman until her death. Elsie saved the Mission from closure during its years of crisis, (she once even stood in as resident warden). Thanks to her it re-emerged as the Peckham Settlement, supported by the Union of Girls’ Schools for Social Service.
Throughout her life Elsie also retained her connections with Wycombe Abbey. She was a member of the school council and carried out a considerable amount of organisational work during the war to ensure the school’s survival. She helped set up an endowment fund and established the Dove-Bowerman Trust, dedicated to the fortunes of Wycombe Abbey, and described it as ‘the crowning work of her life’.
Elsie suffered a stroke in 1972 and died suddenly on 18th October 1973, aged 83, leaving over £143,000 - the equivalent of over a million pounds today. Her bequests reflected the things closest to her heart. £1000 went to the Chichester Cathedral Fund (to increase stipends); £500 each was left to the Seaman’s Mission, Arthur Owen of Rye, and Mary Jenner of Hellingly. £200 each went to Warbleton Parish Church, the Gardeners’ Benevolent Fund and the RNLI and £100 went to the Old Hastings Preservation Society. To Margaret Cousins, of Benedicts, Ardingly, she left the remainder of her possessions and the largest personal bequest: £4000. Her books, piano, music and records went to Wycombe Abbey School, as did the bulk of her estate, which she left to the school’s Dove-Bowerman Trust, which is still in existence. Although her funeral was held at St Mary the Virgin, Warbleton, Elsie was buried in the family grave, along with her parents, in Hastings cemetery.
In an obituary, Miss Fisher of Wycombe Abbey wrote:
It was the vitality and the gaiety of Elsie Bowerman’s spirit that captivated us and made us respond with smiles whenever she appeared in the School. Welcome everywhere, but happiest in the Cloister, she invigorated us with her penetrating comments, lively wit and clear-sighted vision.
Miss K. A. Walpole, headmistress of Wycombe Abbey, described Elsie as:
... not just an able, strong-minded woman. Determined? Yes. Impatient? Yes - with injustice and narrow-minded foolishness. But essentially she was modest, friendly, relaxed. She loved the good things of life - music above all, art, her garden; she enjoyed good food, good wine, fun, sociability. Many of us will remember her generous hospitality, a smaller number the joy of her close friendship. Her concern also reached out to all those who lived about her - her daily help, her taxi-driver, the people of the village, those with whom she worshipped in the village church.
As her life drew to its close her thoughts turned to abiding loyalties, loyalty to church, country, school and friends; though finding it hard to lose her independence because of failing strength, she rejoiced in her remembrance of a long and happy life; as ever, she looked to the future. Let the last words be hers:
“As one approaches the end of life an unaccountable feeling of melancholy creeps over one. This is not because of any fear of the life to come, rather a joyful anticipation. Life has been so full of surprises that one cannot believe that there are not even greater joys and adventures in store. Here’s Au Revoir to all my friends and countless thanks for all their love and kindness which has given me such a happy life in this world - Here’s to our next happy meeting in the next one.
1 Property later inherited by Elsie and Edith included 2, 5 & 8 Grand Parade; 7 & 7a South St; 1 - 5 Crystal Square; 11 North St; 62 Norman Rd; 4 & 5 Castle St; 68 & 69 Marina; 9 & 19 Wellington Place; 37 London Rd. Most were shops with flats above. William Bowerman’s shops included 14 Robertson St (hosier), 33/35 London Rd and 9½ Castle St.
2 According to Miss Fisher, Wycombe Abbey School.
3 6 Cumberland Gardens.
4 Born 12 April 1840.
5 Women’s Social & Political Union. Founded in 1903 by Mrs. Pankhurst in Manchester, it had branches throughout Britain.
6 Crawford, E. (1999) The Women’s Suffrage Movement. Routledge. p.74.
7 Dr. Elsie Inglis (1864-1916). Studied at the Edinburgh School of Medicine for Women, founded by Sophia Jex-Blake q.v.
8 Seventeen women stood but only one was elected, and as a Sinn Feiner she did not take her seat in the house.
9 The first woman had been called to the Bar in 1921.
10 Evening Standard 17th July 1928.
11Elsie is listed as the first Chief on the DAW website at www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/daw/
12 Crawford, E. (1999) The Women’s Suffrage Movement. Routledge. p.74.
13 22b Egerton Gardens, SW3.
14 Belfield Nursing Home, 1, Hollington Park Rd. Matron: Miss. C V Cane. The 1950 telephone directory lists a Mrs. E. M. Chignall (sic) The Nurseries, Ridgewood, Uckfield, Sussex. Bellfield is now the Sussex Clinic.
15 I am indebted to Mr W Carley of St Leonards for his personal reminiscences of Elsie during the 1950s and 1960s.
This article first appeared as a chapter in “Notable Women of Victorian Hastings” published by The Hastings Press 2002 (www.hastingspress.co.uk)
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Added to Encyclopedia Titanica Thursday 28th August 2003, last updated Saturday 25th April 2015.