How Far South did the Titanic Reach?

Jim Currie

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Pitman also stated that the vessel ran over 10 miles beyond where she should have turned at 5:50pm. He also said that the speed of the vessel had been increased continually since departing Queenstown by only 1 knot, from 20.5 to 21.5. Here's the exchange:

Senator FLETCHER. How much had you increased your speed Sunday night.
Mr. PITMAN. To 21 1/2 knots.
Senator FLETCHER. What increase was that over the speed you had been making prior to that?
Mr. PITMAN. Only about a knot.
Senator FLETCHER. You had been making about 20 1/2?
Mr. PITMAN. Yes, 20 1/4 and 20 1/2 first, after we left Queenstown.
Senator FLETCHER. How long did that continue?
Mr. PITMAN. The next day, 21.
Senator FLETCHER. And you kept increasing up to 21 1/2, so that at the time the iceberg was struck you were traveling at the highest rate of speed at which you had been going during the trip?
Mr. PITMAN. Oh, no; the same speed we had been traveling for the last 24 hours.
Senator FLETCHER. The same speed?
Mr. PITMAN. The same speed.

Yet Pitman knew full well that the vessel made over 22 knots from noon Saturday to noon Sunday. In fact, the memorandum that he later handed over to Sen. Smith clearly shows this despite a number of numerical errors in it.

Once again, the log is not effected by current, it measures distance traveled through water. I quote what you said Jim: "Current does not significantly effect the Patent Log." If the ship really faced a 1.1 knot head current, and her speed made good was only 21 knots, then her speed through the water would have been 22.1 knots, and in 6 hours the log would have registered 132.6 miles.
Pitman said many things, Sam but when asked specifically about ship's speed at the time of celestial observations he said:

"4427. Can you tell what speed the ship was making at the time of these observations? A: - About 21 1/2."

As for your remarks about speed through the water. Are you seriously suggesting that the patent log was so inaccurate as to have accumulated a 6.7 mile error in the 6 hours from Noon to 6 pm? really? Because if you are, then you have another problem. If, as you suggest, the patent log was reading 6.7 miles too low at 6 pm that evening, then, if the error did not accumulate from that time, that same log had the same error at the moment of impact and the distance run from Noon by log was actually 266.7 miles, not 260 miles.
 

Jim Currie

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By the way, the Navigators of Titanic had no part in the decision as to when and where the ship was to be turned. That was the sole responsibility of her Captain. He too just had to be very much aware of that 22.1 knot average speed between Noon April 13 and Noon April 15. Yet, while the pleasure of that knowledge was still fresh in his mind, he completely set it aside when he set to work to calculate the time of when he wanted to turn onto the final course for New York. He had the April 14 Noon position so knew that the desired turning point was either 124 or 126 miles from that position. Since he ordered that his ship was to be turned at 5-50 pm, there can be no doubt whatsoever that he decided that Titanic would be slowed down during her run for the turning point. We can be pretty sure that the reduced speeds of 21.25 and 21.5 knots figured largely in his decision as to when to turn onto 265 True.
 
Mar 22, 2003
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As for your remarks about speed through the water. Are you seriously suggesting that the patent log was so inaccurate as to have accumulated a 6.7 mile error in the 6 hours from Noon to 6 pm?
No Jim, you obviously do not get the point I was making. The point I am trying to get across is that that patent log measures distance traveled through water, not distance traveled over the sea bed below. What I said was that if a vessel had a speed made good of 21 knots while traveling against a 1.1 knot head current, then its speed through the water would be 22.1 knots. And 22.1 miles is the distance that well calibrated patent log would measure in an hour of time.

Between noon Saturday and noon Sunday Titanic traveled 546 miles over the sea bed below. That was a distance made good which was posted shortly after noon Sunday. It did so in 24 hours 45 minutes giving a speed made good of 22.06 knots. We don't know what the patent log measured over than run, but she did so carrying an average of 75 revolutions per minute. And that run was against the North Atlantic current, so its speed through the water was likely somewhat greater than that. Let me remind you that the only direct evidence of patent log readings on Titanic came from QM Rowe and QM Hichens. It is you who keeps on claiming that the patent log read 126 miles at 6pm. I claim that 126 miles (actually 125.7) was the actual distance from Titanic's noontime position (which I calculate to be at 43° 01.8' N, 44° 31.5' W) to the corner at 42° 00' N, 47° 00' W.
I also believe that Titanic averaged 22.3 knots through the water by patent log carrying between 75 and 76 rpm. If that was so, then in 2 hours the patent log would read 44.6 miles, and in 6 hours it would read close to 134 miles with the same number of revolutions.
 

Jim Currie

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"Between noon Saturday and noon Sunday Titanic traveled 546 miles over the sea bed below.

No she did not, Sam.
By calculation, after Noon sights, the distance between the coordinates on the surface of the sea (not the sea floor) for Noon, April 13 and for Noon April 14 was, 546 nautical miles. If the sun sights were perfect at both Noons, then. since the Log was set to zero at Noon, 13. and seems to have been accurate. it too would have read 546 miles.


The point I am trying to get across is that that patent log measures distance traveled through water, not distance traveled over the sea bed below. What I said was that if a vessel had a speed made good of 21 knots while traveling against a 1.1 knot head current, then its speed through the water would be 22.1 knots. And 22.1 miles is the distance that well calibrated patent log would measure in an hour of time.".

You don't need to make that point, Sam. I made it to you in my post No.139.

Ships don't 'make good' a speed, they make good a course. The patent Log was an odometer.. it simply registered how far the ship had traveled. Nothing to do with speed at all. If the ship traveled 21 miles between Noon and 1 pm then at 1 pm it would register 21 not 22.1 miles. If that had been the case then the Patent Log... all patent Logs would have been totally useless.

I think you need a few olden days definitions.

Ships average a speed over a fixed distance in a given period of time. The calculated day's run distance at Noon divided by the total day's run in hours and minutes gives the Day's Run General Average Speed, not the Current Average Speed.
The voyage General Average Speed at any time is the voyage total distance run divided by total time from FAOP.. Full Away on Passage.
Measured speed on a ship is the actual average speed between two fixed or assumed (DR) points or a combination of the two on the surface of the sea. A new Patent Log is calibrated in exactly the same way and usually, but not always at the same time as the speed of a new ship is determined, i.e by
the time taken to traverse a known distance between two points in a fixed time.

If a ship was capable of 22 knots but only traveled 21 miles in 1 hour, then she did not average 22 knots but averaged 21 knots. The fact that she did not travel 22 miles means that something stopped her doing so and that something had the effect of knocking a knot off her speed. Applying this to Titanic:

It seems that the ship was capable of 22.1 knots. By 6 pm she should have traveled 132 .6 miles. However, proper interpretation of the evidence of 5th Officer Lowe points to him obtaining a Patent Log reading of 125.7 miles at that time. This being the case, then it is safe to assume that at 5-50 pm, when the Patent Log should have read 128.9 miles, it would in fact have read 122.2 miles; a difference of 6.7 miles.
Since the ship was on the same course from Noon and the distance from Noon was 124 miles, we can then deduce that she did not make good her intended course and that each hour from Noon she was set off course by a current which caused her to lose 1.15 knots of her capable speed. Since we have a very good idea of the set of that current, we can make a plot of where she was when she turned.

"And that run was against the North Atlantic current,"

If you keep using out-dated information, you will come to that conclusion. Modern science proves your statement to be wrong as does the experience of your own Coastguard in 1912 and the countless mariners who have crossed that area thousands of times. If Titanic had encountered the tail end of the North Atlantic Current, she would have been set to the northward of her prescribed track...she was set to the southward of it.

"Let me remind you that the only direct evidence of patent log readings on Titanic came from QM Rowe and QM Hichens. It is you who keeps on claiming that the patent log read 126 miles at 6pm. I claim that 126 miles (actually 125.7) was the actual distance from Titanic's noontime position (which I calculate to be at 43° 01.8' N, 44° 31.5' W) to the corner at 42° 00' N, 47° 00' W.


Fortunately I still have a fair memory so you need not remind me of the evidence of the two QMs.
I don't claim anything, Sam, I interpret the evidence from a basis of understanding what was going on on the bridge of Titanic at the time.
Unlike you, I did not consult historic data relative to the Olympic to come to the conclusion as to how far Titanic had to run from Noon to The Corner. That is bad practice, no two ships are the same nor do they act in the same way. No, I calculated the total distance to run according to 1912 practice then subtracted from it, the accumulated distance traveled to Noon April, 14 as supplied by 3rd Officer Pitman.

"I also believe that Titanic averaged 22.3 knots through the water by patent log carrying between 75 and 76 rpm.

Without a time frame, that does not make much sense. I presume you mean general average speed between Noon and time of impact i.e 260 divided by 11. 667 hours?
Apart from the correct arithmetic, I'm not sure what you mean, by your observation. I suggst you keep in mind the deffinitions of 'Average speed'.

"If that was so, then in 2 hours the patent log would read 44.6 miles, and in 6 hours it would read close to 134 miles with the same number of revolutions."

Since it came directly after your observation concerning the run from Noon to The Corner I can only assume you are referring to that period. If so then if she covered a distance of 134 miles up to 6 pm, she would have covered a total of 178 miles up until 8 pm, leaving her 81.6 miles to steam until impact. We know that after 8 pm she made 22.5 knots. if so, then impact came at 11-36 pm. not 11-40 pm or even 11-45 pm.
Not only that, but you are proposing that the ship gained 0.2 of a knot against a current during the first 6 hours after Noon and only gained an additional 0.2 knots after 8 pm, despite the significant change in the environmental conditions between Noon April 14 and 8 pm as well as a speed -reducing turn in between times. Oh, and I nearly forgot; little or no hard evidence that the engine rpms were ever increased to 76 for any appreciable time.



 
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Jim, Pitman puzzle, post #152
Pitman clearly stated at both Inquiries that when Boxhall called him about 15 minutes after impact, it was within 'a few minutes' of when he, Pitman, was due on Watch. Since he was to share the clock change with Boxhall, he was due on Watch at adjusted midnight, not midnight April 14 when the first clocks adjustment would have been made.
Pitman had unaltered time on his watch and since his first duty when he went on Watch at partly adjusted Midnight would have been to complete the planned clock change by making the final adjustment using the chronometer as a time-check; we can only assume that he intended putting his watch back the full amount at the same time. Thus, he could be sure of the accuracy of his watch.

Just to get your Statement right:
Pitman was supposed to go on watch at 12.04 unaltered time. You say, he had unaltered time on his watch.
Do you mean unaltered or partly adjusted? The reason why I ask is how to Interpret Pitman in US:
Senator SMITH. And when did you next appear outside of your berth?
Mr. PITMAN. About 10 minutes to 12, or a quarter to 12, sir.
Senator SMITH. What occasion was there for rising at that time?
Mr. PITMAN. Well, the collision woke me up.
According to your assumption of a clock Change before collision Pitman's times must be given in partly adjusted time.

Another Point:
Reading Pitman's testimony in US and UK I do not get the Impression that there were only 24 minutes between the collision and the time he was due on watch.
The collison woke him up. He stayed in bed three or four minutes. The he went out on deck, could not see anything, went back, sat down and lit his pipe. In England he even went to bed again:
14940. Seeing and hearing nothing, what did you do then? - I went back inside again.
14941. And turned in again? - No, I met Mr. Lightoller first of all, and I asked him what had happened, if we had hit something, and he said, "Yes, evidently."
14942. He said "Evidently"? - Yes, evidently something had happened.
14943. After you had received that information what did you do? - I went to bed.
14944. How long did you remain in bed? - It may have been five minutes.
14945. And at the end of five minutes what did you do? - I thought I might as well get up, as it was no use trying to go to sleep again, as I was due on watch in a few minutes.
14946. Your watch was the middle watch, from 12 to 4? - That night, yes.
14947. Did you get up and proceed to dress? - Yes.

Obviously there was enough time left to think whether to sleep a bit before he was due on watch.
 

Jim Currie

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Hello Marcus.

No. when Boxhall Called Pitman, it was about 15 minutes after impact and about 5 minutes to Midnight partially altered time. Pitman's unaltered watch would show 11-55 +24 minutes = 12-19 am. A fully altered watch would show 11-55pm minus 23 minutes = 11-33 am.

Pitman, Boxhall, Lowe and Moody worked 4 hours on - 4 hours off. As Lowe said, "when we sleep, we die". Pitman would have been in an exhausted daze for the first 5 minutes after he became awake. He obviously was half awake since he though the noise of the impact was the ship coming to anchor. In the middle of the Atlantic?
 
May 3, 2005
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Jim Markus and Sam.
Thanks for all the effort you have been putting into this subject.
But do you think you are ever going to reach an agreement ?
I am just a fascinated observer and probably the least of a sailor who has ever been in the U.S. Navy.
 
May 3, 2005
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Just an aside on the above.
Were officers expected to relieve the watch ahead of, or just on the hour ?
I was an ET in the USN on an AV and we never stood watches as such. We just stood by and were available 24/7.
 
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The way we worked and the way those officers worked !!!
It's just difficult to imagine how arduous life must have been for them.
Was it any diifferent when the ship was in port ?
In the FAA , we worked 8 on 16 off at the most.
 
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Jim Currie

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Hello Robert.

In most cases, an officer arrived on the bridge a few minutes before the start of his duty. The first thing the on-coming OOW would do would be to read the Captain's Order Book then sign it to acknowledge that he had done so and understood the Captain's orders. These would contain details of any planned course or speed changes to take place. He would then go out onto the bridge and formally accept the ship. During this last act, he would receive any verbal observations that his colleague, who was about to go of duty, thought relevant to the safety or continued smooth operation of the ship. Other ranks would do much the same thing. Besides the practical reasons for relieving a little early, it was always considered good manners to do so.
In the case of Pitman; I suspect that when he was fully aware of the time, he would have had the same anxiety as any officer who thought he might be late on duty had and still has.

Glad you are enjoying the 'banter'. As to an end-game? I can do no better than the following:

"Hope springs eternal in the human breast;
Etc.

-Alexander Pop
e"
 
May 3, 2005
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Just that 4 on and 4 off sounds unbelievable to this landlubber !
On shift work with the FAA it was also considered SOP for the relief shift to arrive 15 to 30 minutes before the hour to be briefed on any problems, etc.
 
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Jim Currie

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If it's very long or you want to take time thinking, write your thoughts on a blank page of your 'word' program. When you are happy with what you've written, open this sight then copy and paste what you have written onto this reply panel. I'm sure there is a much cleverer way of doing it but this works for me.
 
Mar 22, 2003
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But do you think you are ever going to reach an agreement ?
No, for all the reasons previously stated.

Just a few observations,
Obviously there was enough time left to think whether to sleep a bit before he was due on watch.
,
The collision happened at 11:40. If that was partially altered time, as some here would have you believe, then in the normal course of events, Pitman and Lowe would both have been called five minutes later, at 11:45, to get ready to go on watch. According to his story, he first got out of bed 3 or 4 minutes after he awoke, which certainly would place the time close to 11:45, the time he would normally be called by the standby QM to get ready to go on watch if this was partially altered time. So why would he even think of going back to bed after he came back from looking around? The other thing to ask is why say that you got out of bed "about 10 minutes to 12, or a quarter to 12" in partially altered time and then later speak of seeing the ship sink at 2:20am in unaltered time on a watch the was last set the night before? Either the time was altered or it was not. Why change time references? To me this does not make any sense except to those who wish us to believe that it is so.
 
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So why would he even think of going back to bed after he came back from looking around?
Sam, your reasoning meets very well my thoughts regarding Pitman's testimony.

I went partly through the thread "Possible setback of clocks before collission", which has swelled up to impressing 24 pages. As far as I can see, there are strong arguments for either side to substantiate or disprove the clock setback.
As long as we remain on board the ship it does not really matter whether collision time 11.40 was altered or unaltered time.
But it matters very much for placing the first CQD. Cape race heared the first CQD at 10.25 NYT,
corresponding with 12.22 or 12.27 unaltered ship's time (The 1h57 or 2h02 time difference is of minor importance here)

Here some quotes from Bride in USA:
Mr. BRIDE. I have no recollection of the time these various incidents took place, but I can give you a fairly good estimate of the times between the incidents.
Senator SMITH. No; but you have fixed as best you could the interval between the time of the collision and the time the captain came to your room and told you to send out the C. Q. D. call?
Mr. BRIDE. Yes, sir.
Senator SMITH. You have fixed that, to the best of your recollection, as 10 minutes?
Mr. BRIDE. Yes, sir.
Senator SMITH. But there is a wide discrepancy. We are all agreed as to the hour when the collision took place,
but there is a discrepancy of 55 minutes between the time of the collision and the time the wireless was received on the Carpathia.
(Sen. Smith is mixing up two errors at one time: Firstly he thinks both ships must have the same time, 1h50 fast of NYT.
Secondly he thinks the first call sent by Titanic was the one received by Carpathia. 11.40->9.50; 12.35->10.45; )

Mr. BRIDE. That may be due simply to difference in the times kept by the two ships.

After a longer examination with Senator Smith he said:

Mr. BRIDE. I said the captain came to the cabin 10 minutes after the accident. The captain came to the cabin after I had
turned out 10 minutes, and I turned out after the collision had occurred.
Senator SMITH. I assume you were in bed?
Mr. BRIDE. Yes sir.
Senator SMITH. Between the time you turned out and the captain gave the order to send this message -
Mr. BRIDE. It was just about 10 minutes.

What I take from this is that Bride turned out 10 minutes after collision, and Captain Smith came to the cabin 10 minutes after Bride turned out. This will put the first CQD 20 minutes after the collision.
Supposed the clocks were not set back, which you are convinced of, the collision occured at 11.40 unaltered time, and the first CQD must have been sent at 12.22 ... 12.27 unaltered time. This does not match with Bride's testimony, because we have 45 minutes between collision and first CQD. Bride allows 20 only.

Now look at this:

Senator SMITH. Did you take the exact time from a watch or clock when the collision occurred? Mr. BRIDE. No, sir.
Senator SMITH. You did not? Mr. BRIDE. No, sir.
Senator SMITH. Did you have a watch or clock in your room? Mr. BRIDE. We had two clocks, sir.
Senator SMITH. Were they both running?
Mr. BRIDE. Yes, sir; one was keeping New York time and the other was keeping ship's time.
Senator FLETCHER. The difference was about 1 hour and 55 minutes?
Mr. BRIDE. There was about 2 hours difference between the two.

Bride can not remember the time when the collision occured (...I have no recollection of the time these various incidents took place...), but he seems to confirm the difference of about two hours, which is suitable to prove that clocks were not altered.
BUT: Obviously he did not look on these clocks after he turned out, because he said: I have no recollection of the time these various incidents took place.
His statement "There was about 2 hours difference between the two." is refering to the time he went to bed at 8 pm.
So we can not exclude that the clocks were set back 23 minutes before he arose.
He did not realize this, because he did not have a look on them after he got up.
Bride said, "...but I can give you a fairly good estimate of the times between the incidents", and this was about 20 minutes between collision and first CQD sent.
So this Bride testimony would rather induce to consider that the clocks were set back at this time.
 
Dec 4, 2000
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It is a fact...not a wish to make it so...but a fact that the crew time was retarded approximately 24 minutes from unaltered April 14th ship's time. It is also a fact that Titanic maintained that unaltered time for the management of routine duties like the compass evolutions Boxhall performed just a minute or so prior to impact on the iceberg. So, both references were in use at the moment Titanic met the iceberg. It baffles me as to why this simple arrangement is so difficult for some people to understand.

The extra time that evening amounted to 47 minutes, split more-or-less evenly between the on-duty Starboard Watch and the Port Watch below. What we know for a fact is that the day/date of April 14th did not end at 12:00 o'clock, but continued on for another 47 minutes to 12:47 o'clock. Halfway between 12:00 and 12:47 had to come the crew's midnight change of watch. As I have said before, I divide that with 24 minutes to the Starboard and 23 minutes of extra duty to the Port. Others reverse the big and little halves, but it's of no consequence. Here's how it worked out in unaltered April 14th hours:

11:54 Seven Bells of Starboard Watch
12:00 Boxhall assisted by Olliver perform 48th compass evolution of April 14
12:04 Impact on iceberg (11:40 crew)
12:09 Wakeup call for Port watch below (1 bell sounded in forecastle)
12:24 Eight bells -- Crew Change of Watch (Bells probably not sounded due to emergency)
12:27 First CQD sent (10:25 NYT)
12:30 Compass evolution by Port Watch
12:47 Becomes 0:00 April 15th -- Change of Day and date
12:30 One Bell of Port Watch

If you note above the ship's bells by which the crew accounted for their Watch and by which they changed Watches was not in synchronization with unaltered April 14th hours at the moment of impact on the iceberg. No matter when it was done, the crew clocks had been adjusted to reflect the need for 8 bells to sound at 12:24 in unaltered time thus signifying the end of the Starboard Watch tour on deck and the beginning of the Port Watch. Let's look at the above chronology, but this time add in crew clock time.

11:54 Unaltered = 11:30 crew time (seven bells)
12:00 " = 11:36 " " Boxhall assisted by Olliver perform 48th compass evolution of April 14
12:04 " = 11:40 " " (Impact on iceberg)
12:09 " = 11:45 " " (wakeup bell in forecastle)
12:24 " = 12:00 " " Change of Watch ("Midnight" for crew)
12:27 " = 12:03 " " First CQD
12:30 " = 12:06 " " Compass evolution by Port Watch (49th of April 14th)
12:47 " = 12:24 " " Change of Watch all clocks reset to April 15th hours
00:00 " = 00:00 " " Beginning day/date/hours April 15th
00:30 " = 00:30 " " Compass evolution by Port Watch

As to time kept by the off-duty junior officers, they had no need of observing crew hours. What they had to do was nip to their cabins for as much sleep as they could get. Don't forget, they worked watch-and-watch. The resetting of clocks on a westward passage robbed them of valuable bunk time. The call to come on duty would come no matter what time they kept on any personal timepiece. And, they had need to keep unaltered April 14th time for their duties during their early minutes on deck. Note the 12:30 compass check (12:06 crew time) was still required under the still-existing unaltered April 14th ship's time. Remember, routinely scheduled ship's business such as those compass comparison evolutions, reading of the log, taking of the air and water temperatures, etc. all took place every half hour.

-- David G. Brown
 

Jim Currie

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No, for all the reasons previously stated.

Just a few observations, ,
The collision happened at 11:40. If that was partially altered time, as some here would have you believe, then in the normal course of events, Pitman and Lowe would both have been called five minutes later, at 11:45, to get ready to go on watch. According to his story, he first got out of bed 3 or 4 minutes after he awoke, which certainly would place the time close to 11:45, the time he would normally be called by the standby QM to get ready to go on watch if this was partially altered time. So why would he even think of going back to bed after he came back from looking around? The other thing to ask is why say that you got out of bed "about 10 minutes to 12, or a quarter to 12" in partially altered time and then later speak of seeing the ship sink at 2:20am in unaltered time on a watch the was last set the night before? Either the time was altered or it was not. Why change time references? To me this does not make any sense except to those who wish us to believe that it is so.
AS you pointout; under normal circumstanced, standby QM Olliver or 6th Officer Moody would have been the ones to call Pitman and Lowe at 1 bell, 5 minutes after impact. However, at that time there was an emergency taking place. Then last thing anyone would think of was to call the on-coming Watch.
Pitman had two accounts: As any Investigator or Attorney will tell you, the first story, the one when the memory of the witness is freshest, is the most important. The following is the condensed evidence of Pitman, given by him on Day 4 of the US Senate Inquiry. He stated the following 6 days after the event:

" About 10 minutes to 12, or a quarter to 12....the collision woke me up....there was a sound that I thought seemed like the ship coming to an anchor - the chain running out over the windlass....it gave just a little vibration. I was about half awake and about half asleep. It did not quite awaken me....
You lay in bed a while after the impact? A: Yes....Maybe three or four minutes....[ I ] Just went outside of our quarters, had a look around, and could not see anyone....I had a look around, and I could not see anything, and could not hear any noise, so I went back to the room and sat down and lit my pipe....A few minutes afterwards I thought I had better start dressing, as it was near my watch, so I started dressing, and when I was partly dressed Mr. Boxhall came in and said the mail room."

Because of the erratic questioning methods, Pitman's answers were anything but chronological. Let's attempt to put them in chronological order and then match them with corroborating evidence. Keep in mind that we are examining the actions of a young, fit but exhausted man who has recently been awakened from a deep sleep.

11-40 pm...Impact. Pitman is partly wakened. Half- asleep he hears or senses the the ice grinding against the hull.
11-42/43 pm...Pitman experiences a sensation which brings to mind a ship coming to anchor. It is the gentle heaving of the ship as is normal when the engines are going astern to cause the anchor to 'bite'.
11-46...Pitman senses that the engines are stopped. (A very normal sensation for all experienced seamen). Confused, he rises from his bunk and goes and has a look. He does not see anything. All is quiet. Like Loghtoller, he figures that if he is needed he will be called. He decides to return to the warmth of his bunk. On the way he meets Lightoller who is equally mystified.
11-48 pm. Pitman is now coming more awake. He has arrived back in his cabin and sits on his bunk. He reaches for his pipe and lucifers and lights-up.
11-50 pm. Pitman's pipe is now under full steam. He is fully awake and thinking clearly, then remembers about time. He reached over to his bedside tray and has a look at his watch. The OMG moment hits him... the ship time is 11-52 pm. He realises that he is due on Watch in 3 minutes i.e. 5 minutes before adjusted Midnight, 12- 19 am April 14 time. He starts dressing.
11-55 pm Boxhall arrives.

The evidence of Lightoller fits fairly easily with that of Pitman concerning that period of the incident.
The evidence of Trimmer Dillon suggests that about 3 minutes after impact, the engines were running astern and that 6 minutes after impact, they were stopped. That was around the time the sleepy Pitman had the idea about anchoring

As to the time he had on his watch?

When he turned - in, Pitman would have April 14 time on his watch. He would not adjust it because, under normal circumstances, he expected to be called at 1 bell - 11:45 pm partly altered time - by QM Olliver. He knew that when his watch read 19 minutes after Midnight, he should be on the bridge and it would then be 5 minutes away from the moment the full alteration to the clocks would be completed. He or his Assistant, Lowe would perform that duty. However, events overtook his intentions. As he said, they were too busy to think about clock alterations. It follows that when he was in the lifeboat, he still had April 14 time on his watch.
 

Jim Currie

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So why would he even think of going back to bed after he came back from looking around?
Sam, your reasoning meets very well my thoughts regarding Pitman's testimony.

I went partly through the thread "Possible setback of clocks before collission", which has swelled up to impressing 24 pages. As far as I can see, there are strong arguments for either side to substantiate or disprove the clock setback.
As long as we remain on board the ship it does not really matter whether collision time 11.40 was altered or unaltered time.
But it matters very much for placing the first CQD. Cape race heared the first CQD at 10.25 NYT,
corresponding with 12.22 or 12.27 unaltered ship's time (The 1h57 or 2h02 time difference is of minor importance here)

Here some quotes from Bride in USA:
Mr. BRIDE. I have no recollection of the time these various incidents took place, but I can give you a fairly good estimate of the times between the incidents.
Senator SMITH. No; but you have fixed as best you could the interval between the time of the collision and the time the captain came to your room and told you to send out the C. Q. D. call?
Mr. BRIDE. Yes, sir.
Senator SMITH. You have fixed that, to the best of your recollection, as 10 minutes?
Mr. BRIDE. Yes, sir.
Senator SMITH. But there is a wide discrepancy. We are all agreed as to the hour when the collision took place,
but there is a discrepancy of 55 minutes between the time of the collision and the time the wireless was received on the Carpathia.
(Sen. Smith is mixing up two errors at one time: Firstly he thinks both ships must have the same time, 1h50 fast of NYT.
Secondly he thinks the first call sent by Titanic was the one received by Carpathia. 11.40->9.50; 12.35->10.45; )

Mr. BRIDE. That may be due simply to difference in the times kept by the two ships.

After a longer examination with Senator Smith he said:

Mr. BRIDE. I said the captain came to the cabin 10 minutes after the accident. The captain came to the cabin after I had
turned out 10 minutes, and I turned out after the collision had occurred.
Senator SMITH. I assume you were in bed?
Mr. BRIDE. Yes sir.
Senator SMITH. Between the time you turned out and the captain gave the order to send this message -
Mr. BRIDE. It was just about 10 minutes.

What I take from this is that Bride turned out 10 minutes after collision, and Captain Smith came to the cabin 10 minutes after Bride turned out. This will put the first CQD 20 minutes after the collision.
Supposed the clocks were not set back, which you are convinced of, the collision occured at 11.40 unaltered time, and the first CQD must have been sent at 12.22 ... 12.27 unaltered time. This does not match with Bride's testimony, because we have 45 minutes between collision and first CQD. Bride allows 20 only.

Now look at this:

Senator SMITH. Did you take the exact time from a watch or clock when the collision occurred? Mr. BRIDE. No, sir.
Senator SMITH. You did not? Mr. BRIDE. No, sir.
Senator SMITH. Did you have a watch or clock in your room? Mr. BRIDE. We had two clocks, sir.
Senator SMITH. Were they both running?
Mr. BRIDE. Yes, sir; one was keeping New York time and the other was keeping ship's time.
Senator FLETCHER. The difference was about 1 hour and 55 minutes?
Mr. BRIDE. There was about 2 hours difference between the two.

Bride can not remember the time when the collision occured (...I have no recollection of the time these various incidents took place...), but he seems to confirm the difference of about two hours, which is suitable to prove that clocks were not altered.
BUT: Obviously he did not look on these clocks after he turned out, because he said: I have no recollection of the time these various incidents took place.
His statement "There was about 2 hours difference between the two." is refering to the time he went to bed at 8 pm.
So we can not exclude that the clocks were set back 23 minutes before he arose.
He did not realize this, because he did not have a look on them after he got up.
Bride said, "...but I can give you a fairly good estimate of the times between the incidents", and this was about 20 minutes between collision and first CQD sent.
So this Bride testimony would rather induce to consider that the clocks were set back at this time.
Marcus,

Sam's question begs an alternative question.

Why should Pitman have thought that he had only a few minutes left in bed before going on Watch when, if there was no clock set back, he would have had an extra half hour still to sleep before he did?

The man was sleepy, yes, but he was not stupid.

Pitman was a man who was on 'slave' Watches. A man to whom every minute off duty counted. Does anyone honestly think such a man, who was ultimately wide awake, would have been so dumb as to miss-out on an extra 30 minutes shut-eye? if they do then it is painfully obvious that they have never been a Watch-stander.

As for the evidence of the surviving Wireless Operator, Bride: he too was young but not entirely stupid.

Like the teams of Pitman & Lowe and Boxhall & Moody, the Wireless Operators Phillips & Bride shared planned clock changes. Under normal circumstances when there was no clock change planned, Phillips would have worked until 2 am then he would have been relived by Bride.
That night, Bride had agreed to relieve Phillips at Midnight because the latter had been working more than usual and need extra rest. Everyone assumes that the Midnight in question was un-adjusted midnight but as I said, Bride wasn't daft. Working an extra 2 hours was kind and considerate of him, working an extra 2 hours and 47 minutes verged on insanity.
In fact, Bride would have had his extra time (being the junior, 23 minutes in his case) in bed. and then relieved Phillips 5 minutes or so before adjusted Midnight. At that time, the GMT would have been about 3-17 am GMT, 10-17 pm EST New York. 3 minutes after that, Captain's Smith's distress call went out. 5 minutes after that, Boxhall's amended one went out.
 
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David, some questions about your post:

11:54 Seven Bells of Starboard Watch
Is there any source, a booklet from Olympic or any other WSL ship, that ship's time was changed before the 7 bells, e.g. at 10.23 back to 10.00? I know that WSL regulations required to change the time between 10 pm an 6 am. Is there any more detailled source, which allows to match the bells with ships time in case of clocks beeing altered?

Supposed the chronicle above beeing correct, how would you make Hichens watch times fit in?
Here some quotes from Hichens in the US enquiry, some questions of me interleaved in blue.

Senator SMITH. What was your post of duty; where was it?
Mr. HICHENS. At the time of the collision I was at the wheel, sir, steering the ship.
Senator SMITH. How long had you been at the wheel when the collision occurred?
Mr. HICHENS. One hour and forty minutes, sir.
Senator SMITH. How long a watch did you have?
Mr. HICHENS. We would have four hours watch; two hours standby and two hours at the wheel.
This applies for "normal" watches without clocks to be set back.
Senator SMITH. I wish you would tell now, in your own way, what occurred that night from the time you went on watch until the collision occurred.
Mr. HICHENS. I went on watch at 8 o'clock. <--This is still unaltered time. At least I hope so.
At a quarter to 10 I called the first officer, Mr. Murdoch, to let him know it was one bell, which is part of our duty; also took the thermometer and barometer, the temperature of the water, and the log. At 10 o'clock I went to the wheel, sir. Mr. Murdoch come up to relieve Mr. Lightoller.
...Would that be 10 o'clock partly altered or unaltered time?
.... Senator SMITH. How long after the impact, or collision?
Mr. HICHENS. I could hardly tell you, sir. Judging roughly, about 5 minutes; about 5 to 10 minutes. I stayed to the wheel, then, sir, until 23 minutes past 12. I do not know whether they put the clock back or not. The clock was to go back that night 47 minutes, 23 minutes in one watch and 24 in the other.
Senator SMITH. Had the clock been set back up to the time you left the Wheel?
Mr. HICHENS. I do not know, sir. I did not notice it.
Senator SMITH. When do you say you left the wheel, at 20 minutes after 12?
Mr. HICHENS. I left the wheel at 23 minutes past 12, sir. I was relieved by Quartermaster
Perkis. He relieved me at 23 minutes past 12. I think the first officer, or one of the officers said, "That will do with the wheel; get the boats out."

If 12.23 is partly altered time, THEN the consequence must be that Hichens had to stay on duty 4h 47 minutes.


12:24 Eight bells -- Crew Change of Watch (Bells probably not sounded due to emergency)
I think they were struck. Have a loook on testimony of George Symons, able seaman:

11418. Before you go on telling us what happened then, can you give us any idea what time it was when you noticed this water reaching nearly to the coamings of the hatch? - I should think, roughly estimating it, it would be about five minutes to twelve, because, as I was on my way to the deck, so they struck eight bells in the crow's-nest.
 
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It is a fact...not a wish to make it so...but a fact that the crew time was retarded approximately 24 minutes from unaltered April 14th ship's time.
Your entitled to your own opinions David, but not to your own set of facts.

At a quarter to 10 I called the first officer, Mr. Murdoch, to let him know it was one bell, which is part of our duty; also took the thermometer and barometer, the temperature of the water, and the log. At 10 o'clock I went to the wheel, sir. Mr. Murdoch come up to relieve Mr. Lightoller.
...Would that be 10 o'clock partly altered or unaltered time?
Hichens also said that the log reading was taken "at half a minute to ten, as near as I can tell." That had to be 10pm UNALTERED time. The log reading Hichens referred to, the one taken at 10pm, was the one that showed that the vessel had advanced 45 miles since 8pm. That was clearly a 2 hour time period, not 2h 24m.

Hichens was also relieved by Perkis at 12:23, and Perkis said he remained in his quarters (down on E deck) until it was time for him to go on watch despite being told by the joiner that the ship had struck ice.