Titanic proceeding to Halifax


Oct 28, 2000
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Some givens -- 22 knot speed
120 feet transfer to turn 2 points
6 minutes between crow's nest bell and impact
Times given on crew clock (Unaltered April 14th time minus 24 minutes

11:30 -- (time uncertain) Captain Smith decides to turn left to take Titanic farther south of the ice field now discernible on the horizon. Orders issued to Boxhall to make course change in conjunction with compass check scheduled for 11:36 per crew time, or 12:00 o'clock in unaltered April14 time.

11:34 -- Lookouts see & report dark mass ahead using 3 strokes on bell. Range 2.2 miles. Iceberg is actually 955 feet left of ship's track, but at 2.2 miles it appears nearly dead ahead. Murdoch does nothing as he expects Captain Smith's planned course change will clear the situation.

11:35 -- Boxhall climbs standard compass ladder and begins routine compass check/comparison scheduled for 12:00 o'clock in unaltered April 14th ship's time. As ship gets closer, the angle on the port bow of the iceberg increases. However, it remains 955 feet to port of ship's track.

11:37 -- Iceberg is now a bit less than 2 points off starboard bow passing safely. Lookouts are required to do nothing. Boxhall cons ship through 2 point course change to left. Hichens uses starboard helm. This turn brings iceberg in front of ship, fine on port bow. Range is 1,650 feet. Murdoch assesses situation and decides to issue engine order and close W/T doors

11:39 -- Boxhall leaves compass platform. Fleet attempts to telephone bridge.

11:40 -- Boxhall hears engine telegraphs before starting down companionway opposite captain's quarters on starboard boat deck. Olliver enters bridge. Sees Murdoch closing W/T doors. Feels ship take ice. Murdoch yells "Hard a-port." Hichens turns wheel. Olliver sees berg slide past starboard bridge wing before he enters wheelhouse to hear Hichens sing out that helm is hard over.

11:41 -- All engines stopped. Ship continues turning to right as it slides to stop. Iceberg lies off starboard quarter (behind and to right of ship). Officers observe iceberg from starboard bridge wing.


Admittedly, I do speculate on Captain Smith's two point course change. There is no record anywhere of such an action. There is, however, testimony from both Hichens and Boxhall that the ship did, in fact, turn two points on starboard helm. This gives solid ground for my speculation.

At 11:34 crew time the lookouts did not report an iceberg dead ahead with their crow's nest bell. That is a modern myth. What they sighted and reported was a "black mass" in the ship's path. Lookouts, indeed all seamen, quickly learn than when a light horizon or lights on shore go inexplicably dark that means an object is between them and the source of the light. Anything which can block light is big and heaving enough to warrant reporting, which the lookouts did. At that moment, however, they didn't now what the "black mass" represented. The only knew something was ahead of the ship that represented a danger.

Due to parallax, to an obeserver on the bridge the iceberg would have appeared to move downward from the horizon and into the blackness of the water. Neither the lookouts nor Murdoch may have been able to keep track of its location. Boxhall couldn't see it through the mass of steel which comprised funnels #1 and #2. Captain Smith could not see the berg through the walls of his private navigating room. It was the perfect recipe for loss of situational awareness among the bridge team.

Everyone was doing his assigned job. Captain Smith was coursing Titanic's safest path. Murdoch was on deck observing. Boxhall was doing the Captain's bidding. Hichens was following orders. The lookouts were looking for new dangers to report. Everyone was doing what they were supposed to be doing, but nobody had the overarching picture -- the "big picture" -- of what was taking place. When Boxhall completed the Captain's course change everything became perfectly clear. By that time it was too late to avoid the collision.

Anyone want to hazard a guess as to what Murdoch said when he realized his ship was deliberately, although accidentally pointed at an iceberg? Yup two words..."Oh ##%!!#$#!!

In the aftermath, the survivors were busier than a three-legged cat in a sandbox trying to cover up their roles in what happened. I don't think there was any sinister conspiracy, just men of like mind backing up each other's stories. Hichens knew he stood a good chance of fine or imprisonment if he could be made the "fall guy" for the accident. Boxhall knew his career would have been cut short once it became known he conned Titanic into disaster. The lookouts had done their jobs and even so the bridge ran down the berg. Even so, Fleet especially knew his career depended upon defending his actions by not revealing the truth.

So, we have an iceberg popping up out of nowhere...a sashay attempt to avoid contact...a sideswipe anyway...bad karma enough to cover a Western Ocean. "Everthing was against us..." Bull manure!

-- David G. Brown
 

Kyle Naber

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Newer evidence suggests that the bridge and the lookouts would not have been able to see for long distances due to the weather conditions.
 
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There was no mirage. The iceberg was simply seen to late and the ship was not able to avoid it. Carpathia nearly had the same fate when going towards boat No. 2 but as she was going with a slower speed she was able to avoid the iceberg which by the way was seen from the bridge at the last second.
 

Lyle

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I believe something was going on atmospherically, enough to distort photons coming from distant sources. I've seen that show before that's referenced above and it does make a lot of sense to this non-scientist.
John Poingdestre on Day 4 of the British Inquiry gave his testimony, and this statement about lights on the horizon to be interesting. I find the exchange somewhat entertaining with the incredulous questions from the Commissioner (I assume Lord Mersey) about "imaginary lights".

We saw the lights of the "Carpathia" coming up. We had never seen the light before; I never. I saw an imaginary light which kept showing for about ten minutes.
3078. (The Commissioner.) How do you see an imaginary light?
- Well, what we thought was a light. There is such a thing at sea as seeing imaginary lights.
3079. Oh, is there?
- Yes.
3080. (Mr. Butler Aspinall.) When did you see this imaginary light? I do not mean was it twelve or half-past, but was it while you were on the "Titanic" or after you had left the "Titanic"?
- When I had left the "Titanic."
3081. (The Commissioner.) I do not understand it. Did you imagine that you saw a light?
- Yes.
3082. Or did you see a light that you imagined, which?
- Well, one way or the other.
3083. (Mr. Butler Aspinall.) Where was it that you saw what you call this imaginary light?
- Off my port bow.
3084. Is that the port bow of your lifeboat?
- Yes.
3085. (The Commissioner.) Have you ever seen imaginary lights at sea before?
- Yes.
3086. Are they frequent things?
- Yes, I have been on the look-out on ships on the forecastle head, and reported a light, and it has been an imaginary light; as soon as you see it it has gone again.
3087. (Mr. Butler Aspinall.) How high above the horizon or above the sea do you think this imaginary light was? Was it low down, or rather high up?
- It seemed low.
3088. Low down, near the horizon?
- Yes.
3089. What distance did you judge it to be?
- A matter of four or five miles.
3090. (The Commissioner.) And what do you think it was?
- I could not say.
3091. (Mr. Butler Aspinall.) What colour was it?
- White.
3092. Might it have been a star, do you think?
- Well, it might have been.
3093. You saw no sidelight, did you?
- No.
3094. No red or green light?
- None whatever.
3095. Was there any general talk in your boat about this imaginary light?
- Well, I spoke to the women about this light and said, "We are all right, we shall be picked up in a minute; there is a ship coming."
 

Jim Currie

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Where to start? OK! I'll start with Sam.
"I'd say if the rudder had not been shifted from left to right soon after initial contact on the starboard side then 'the ship's side would have been opened from bow to stern and there would not have been very many. if any, survivors' had the rudder been kept hard left until the berg passed the stern."
Think about that, Sam. Then think about the position where ship's side and ice contact was lost. We know that the first order was given deconds before impact and that the helm was barely hard-over when contact took place. We know from QM Olliver that the sounds of contact had ended when he saw the tip of the iceberg as it passed the bridge . We also have a very good idea of how far off the bridge the ice was when it passed the bridge. You are fond of passenger evidence... how do you account for the following:
"15008. What stateroom did you have? A: - We had E-50; that is on E deck."
"I went to the porthole I saw this iceberg go by. The porthole was closed. The iceberg was, I should say, about 50 to 100 feet away. I should say it was about as high as the top deck of the boat."
The forefoing is the sworn evidence of passenger George A. Harder who was a Manufacturer. A young man who was also very observant and can help clear up questions herein concerning hand operated WT doors. The fact that he could see the top of the iceberg from his small porthole way down on E deck also tells us something. If the berg had been had alongside mid-ship, he would have had to open the port to see the top of it.
Cabin E- 50 was almost exactly mid-ship on the starboard side, about 175 feet aft of the last point of contact in BR No.5. If Harder's observation is anywhere near accurate, then the ship's side had swung out from the ice berg a minimum of 50 feet in about 5 seconds...11 seconds from the time of impact. Not only that, but in a matter of another 12 or 13 seconds, it had swung back to almost touching the berg at the stern dockiong bridge. As I said: "Think about it, Sam".



 
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Aaron_2016

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Quartermaster Rowe was at the stern. He judged the iceberg to be less than 10 feet away when it passed the stern and was almost touching the aft bridge. I think if the iceberg had moved away 150 feet as it passed the starboard beam and then returned again when it passed the stern, then we are dealing with a case similar to the 'magic bullet theory' at the JFK assassination. I believe there could be two explanations. Either Mr. Harder was observing a second iceberg passing the ship, or he was observing the iceberg after the 'hard a-port' order had been given and the stern was swinging away. As the helm order was given or apparently given when the iceberg was passing the stern, I believe they were trying to protect the blades immediately tried to swing the stern away from the ice as it passed the stern.


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Unusual atmospheric conditions are virtually required by the myth that the iceberg "popped out of nowhere." Otherwise, why wasn't it seen by the lookouts, Murdoch, etc. This is not a new idea. I experimented with the idea more than 20 years ago in my book, "The Last Log Of The Titanic," but even though I discussed the possibility I could never find a solid answer to what would have caused such a condition over a rather wide area of the ocean on that particular night.

However, once I put things into correct time perspective ther was no need for deux ex machina explanations. No miracles required. To me, it's obvious the lookouts did spot the "black mass" that represented an iceberg at a range of more than two miles. They correctly recognized that it was a danger to the ship and then properly reported it as being dead ahead -- using three strikes on their bell.
The changing vertical parallax as the ship approached caused the "black mass" to go below the visible horizon. The berg was effectively hidden in the dark sea as viewed from crow's nest or bridge. If there is a mystery, it's that nothing was done during the early seconds after the lookouts' alarm to change course. That mystery is solved by an analysis of the time of day. It was coming on 12:00 o'clock unaltered April 14th time when the 48th compass check of that Sunday was due to be made. Good use of manpower would have been to combine any course change with that compass work -- only one trip to the compass platform would have been necessary.

Titanic was not navigated by the compass in the wheelhouse that Hichens watched as he steered. It was navigated Per Standard Compass -- PSC . All courses were developed in true, then "uncorrected" for the standard compass deviation and local variation. Deviation is different for all compasses on any ship due to their various placements. The standard compass was located amidships on a platform to reduce deviation error to a minimum. Hichens did not steer PSC, but rather to whatever number corresponded on his steering compass card to the course on the standard compass. Hence, if a course change was to be made, it had to be done by Standard Compass and then translated to the steering compass.

Back to the lookouts. They did not see the iceberg at more than two miles range. Icebergs do not reflect enough light for that on a moonless night with no wave action. What the lookouts saw was a silhouette of the iceberg created by its bulk blocking out the available light reflected off the ice field beyond it. Any sailor knows when a silhouette blocks light from beyond, there is something big causing that "black mass" and it should be avoided.

Navigational texts then and now cautioned icebergs are difficult to spot beyond a quarter mile at night. This was true for Titanic. The berg was not seen by reflected light until after the ship made its two-point left turn on starboard helm. As Ioannis noted above, by then it was too late to avoid contact with the berg.

Even so, the performance by Fleet and Lee that night match or exceed what would normally be expected of human eyes on that night. These men did their job properly and their performance as lookouts belies any fog, or atmospheric conditions existed.

-- David G. Brown
 
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Aaron_2016

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What I find remarkable is how the lookouts managed to see the iceberg well before the bridge officers. I think the captains of the Carpathia, Californian and Mount Temple had testified that they or their officers had seen the icebergs before their lookouts, and their lookouts were extra vigilant. Also their ships were steaming slower than the Titanic with more time to detect them and with less cold breeze against their eyes. Incredible that the Titanic's lookouts were the only two men who saw the iceberg well in advance, and they only testified to seeing just the one, yet the other ships saw numerous icebergs and the Carpathia had to change course several times as they dodged about half a dozen throughout the night, and her lookouts could not see them before the bridge officers. What is more astounding is that Ernest Shackleton testified that icebergs are much harder to detect the higher the observer is above the waterline, but the crows nest on the Titanic was significantly higher than the other ships, and yet the Titanic's lookouts managed to see the iceberg well in advance. Either they had a special gift or there is something fishy. Fleet said he saw a black mass, but that alone could be a low cloud or smoke from another vessel. I wonder at what point he realized it was an iceberg and how much time had passed until he was confident enough to declare that to the bridge?


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Jim Currie

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Quartermaster Rowe was at the stern. He judged the iceberg to be less than 10 feet away when it passed the stern and was almost touching the aft bridge. I think if the iceberg had moved away 150 feet as it passed the starboard beam and then returned again when it passed the stern, then we are dealing with a case similar to the 'magic bullet theory' at the JFK assassination. I believe there could be two explanations. Either Mr. Harder was observing a second iceberg passing the ship, or he was observing the iceberg after the 'hard a-port' order had been given and the stern was swinging away. As the helm order was given or apparently given when the iceberg was passing the stern, I believe they were trying to protect the blades immediately tried to swing the stern away from the ice as it passed the stern.
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Read the evidence, of Harder, Aaron...all of it. He said 50 to 100 feet, not 150 feet. Here are his exact words:

"I heard this thump. It was not a loud thump; just a dull thump. Then I could feel the boat quiver and could feel a sort of rumbling, scraping noise along the side of the boat. When I went to the porthole I saw this iceberg go by. The porthole was closed. The iceberg was, I should say, about 50 to 100 feet away. "

Think about it. He hears the thump of the ship hitting something. He gets up, looks out the porthole and sees that the ship is passing an iceberg. He can see it from his darkened room because it is reflecting the glare of lights from the side of the ship. I'm sure some genius on this site can work out the reflectivity of an iceberg and at what range it would not be visible.
However, it was most certainly more than 7 feet from the ship's side or less than 70 feet high. Otherwise, it would have wiped-out Titanic's Emergency boat No 1, which was hanging out over the ship's side, ready to be deployed immediately in an emergency.
You and everyone on this site must go back to basic principals. If that ship hit something and that something did not move away from the point of contact, then the ship did. I does not matter if the something was an iceberg, a rock, a quay wall or a mooring dolphin...the ship would...how can I describe it? Rebound or bounce off? The fact that it was passing the object at 22.5 knots complicates the physics but the idea that it simply slalomed round that ice berg is as far fetched as your "magic bullet" idea.
My best guess is that the moment the ship contacted that iceberg, the point of contact became a sort of pivot point and the ship pivot point gave way to the external one at the point of contact. The position of this new pivot point itself was changing due to the ship's forward motion. While this was happening and until the contact was broken, the entire length of ship side aft of the pivot point moved to the right, off the original line of advance and kept doing so until contact was broken when the ship's own pivot point ook over and she resuned her left turn. Then, the ship's port side moved back to the right as it would have done in normal turning conditions. By the time the iceberg reach the level of QM Rowe at the stern, it had closed to within less than 10 feet of the ship's side.
 

Jim Currie

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Unusual atmospheric conditions are virtually required by the myth that the iceberg "popped out of nowhere." Otherwise, why wasn't it seen by the lookouts, Murdoch, etc. This is not a new idea. I experimented with the idea more than 20 years ago in my book, "The Last Log Of The Titanic," but even though I discussed the possibility I could never find a solid answer to what would have caused such a condition over a rather wide area of the ocean on that particular night.

However, once I put things into correct time perspective ther was no need for deux ex machina explanations. No miracles required. To me, it's obvious the lookouts did spot the "black mass" that represented an iceberg at a range of more than two miles. They correctly recognized that it was a danger to the ship and then properly reported it as being dead ahead -- using three strikes on their bell.
The changing vertical parallax as the ship approached caused the "black mass" to go below the visible horizon. The berg was effectively hidden in the dark sea as viewed from crow's nest or bridge. If there is a mystery, it's that nothing was done during the early seconds after the lookouts' alarm to change course. That mystery is solved by an analysis of the time of day. It was coming on 12:00 o'clock unaltered April 14th time when the 48th compass check of that Sunday was due to be made. Good use of manpower would have been to combine any course change with that compass work -- only one trip to the compass platform would have been necessary.

Titanic was not navigated by the compass in the wheelhouse that Hichens watched as he steered. It was navigated Per Standard Compass -- PSC . All courses were developed in true, then "uncorrected" for the standard compass deviation and local variation. Deviation is different for all compasses on any ship due to their various placements. The standard compass was located amidships on a platform to reduce deviation error to a minimum. Hichens did not steer PSC, but rather to whatever number corresponded on his steering compass card to the course on the standard compass. Hence, if a course change was to be made, it had to be done by Standard Compass and then translated to the steering compass.

Back to the lookouts. They did not see the iceberg at more than two miles range. Icebergs do not reflect enough light for that on a moonless night with no wave action. What the lookouts saw was a silhouette of the iceberg created by its bulk blocking out the available light reflected off the ice field beyond it. Any sailor knows when a silhouette blocks light from beyond, there is something big causing that "black mass" and it should be avoided.

Navigational texts then and now cautioned icebergs are difficult to spot beyond a quarter mile at night. This was true for Titanic. The berg was not seen by reflected light until after the ship made its two-point left turn on starboard helm. As Ioannis noted above, by then it was too late to avoid contact with the berg.

Even so, the performance by Fleet and Lee that night match or exceed what would normally be expected of human eyes on that night. These men did their job properly and their performance as lookouts belies any fog, or atmospheric conditions existed.

-- David G. Brown
David, it depends on what you want to bend to create a situation.

If I remember rightly, the idea of the abnormal refraction was conjured-up to explain away the light on Titanic's port bow having its origin with the SS Californian. This despite the fact that these remarkable lookouts you refer to did not see tham as Titanic closed on the iceberg.
In your assesment of what the Lookouts saw and did, you miss one very important fact..
If as you say, the Lookouts saw that black mass over two miles away and reported it as being right ahead by ringing three bells, then when Murdoch heard these, he would have looked with the naked eye then checked with his binoculars. If he had not been as sharp-eyed as the lookouts, then he would have ordered Moody to phone the nest and ask them what it was that they saw. if he did see the same black mas at that time, then he would have obeyed the practice of a prudent officer and altered course there and then. He would not have waited until the Lookout were so near to soiling their bell-bottoms that they resorted to what they only did in the event of immediate danger...phoned the bridge.
David, How do you explain away the evidence of the men who were on the wheel, steering Titanic from early evening until the moment she hit the iceberg? I remind you:

QM Rowe: : "17590. At 5.45 to what did you alter it?...A: - N. 71 W.
QM Hichens: "At 10 o'clock I went to the wheel, sir. Mr. Murdoch come up to relieve Mr. Lightoller. I had the course given me from the other quartermaster, [QM Olliver] north 71 west, which I repeated to him, and he went and reported it to the first officer or the second officer in charge, which he repeated back - the course, sir. All went along very well until 20 minutes to 12, when three gongs came from the lookout, and immediately afterwards a report on the telephone, "Iceberg right ahead."

QM Hichens was closelt questioned about any changes that might have taken place before impact. Again, I remind you:

"943. Up to the time of the collision did she vary from her course at all? A: - Not that I am aware of, not more than a degree on either side."

I don't know how they view things in your part of the world, David , but you don't navigate anything by a compass. An accurate compass is simply an aid to accurate navigation. If the funnel had fallen on Titanic's standard compass, they would simply have established the errors on another compass. That other compass only had to have the facility to take a bearing ring and have a clear view of the sky to become the new Standard Compass.
Why would it be necessary to change course using the Standard Compass? The normal practice was simply to know the difference, if any, between the Standard Compass and the steering Compass and apply that difference to any course change.
For instance, if the ship had been steadied on her new course of North 71 West by standard compass and the stearing compass showed North 72 West when the Standard was on North 71 West then as long as the steering compass lubber line was lined up with N 72 West, the ship was on course.
The Course Board was on the forward bulkhead of the wheelhouse. It would have had a slate surace and have been subdivided by white painted lines to provide "cells". These would be labeled: True. Variation, Deviation, Standard, Course to Steer. When the error of the Standard was taken by observation, any changes to it would be reflected by changes in the chalk entries on the Course Board.
We know for a fact that Boxhall checked the error of the standard compass at least three times between 7-30 pm sights and the time of the accident. This would consist of him taking a bearing of a star using the Standard Compass and comparing that compass bearing of the star with the calculkated true bearing of the star. Any difference between the two was the error of the Standard Compass. Only then would it be of any use to check the standard with the steering compasses. A 30 minute check would only show that the 2 compasses read the same as they read 30 minutes ago. Any differnece between them could mean an error of the Standard compass or the steering compass, or both.
 
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Aaron_2016

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Simple error. Meant to say 50-100 but in my haste (at work) I typed 150. Reading Mr. Harder's account he does not state if he was wide awake or dozing in bed like Mr. Lightoller. There is no way to determine how quickly he got up and looked out of the window, as he said the following:

"About a quarter to 11 I went down to my stateroom with Mrs. Harder and retired for the night; and at 20 minutes to 12 we were not asleep yet, and I heard this thump. It was not a loud thump; just a dull thump. Then I could feel the boat quiver and could feel a sort of rumbling, scraping noise along the side of the boat. When I went to the porthole I saw this iceberg go by. The porthole was closed. The iceberg was, I should say, about 50 to 100 feet away. I should say it was about as high as the top deck of the boat. I just got a glimpse of it, and it is hard to tell how high it was."


I believe Mr. Harder was looking out of the window when the stern was swinging away immediately after the collision.


Not to scale, but you get the idea.

Titanicnorth.PNG



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I think Mr. Harder was either seeing a second iceberg, (which in my opinion wouldn't be that far fetched), the ship rebounding off of the ice, or he could be mistaken entirely about size and distance.
 
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Aaron_2016

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Trouble is, Mr. Harder was asked to describe the icebergs that he saw at daylight when the Carpathia was there. His answer might be interesting.


Q - How large, in your judgment, was the largest one?

A - I should not like to make a statement in regard to that Senator, because I am very poor at distances and dimensions. They were of good size.


This casts doubt on the accuracy of his previous statement when he said the iceberg was between 50 - 100 feet away.


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Jim Currie

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Trouble is, Mr. Harder was asked to describe the icebergs that he saw at daylight when the Carpathia was there. His answer might be interesting.


Q - How large, in your judgment, was the largest one?

A - I should not like to make a statement in regard to that Senator, because I am very poor at distances and dimensions. They were of good size.


This casts doubt on the accuracy of his previous statement when he said the iceberg was between 50 - 100 feet away.


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I think you are clutching at straws, Aaron. There is a world of difference in assessing an iceberg at a distance without anything to compare it with and in estimating how far off an iceberg is at night in conditions of limited to absent light, a rapid moving target and a means of measurement by comparison to relatively a close-by point.

If there were two icebergs...which one did Mr Harder see first? where was it in relation to the first one at daylight. if you care to check the evidence, you will discover that there was but a single iceberg between Boxhall in Boat 2 and the Carpathia. However, you are missing one very pertinent fact...the berg seen by harder was very close to Titanic and could not have been missed by her lookouts...why is there no mention of a second berg in their evidence?
 
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Aaron_2016

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If the collision had pushed the Titanic away from the iceberg and made it appear up to 100 feet away as it passed the starboard beam it would have to be a significant impact to repel the ship away that fast. Didn't a survivor state that there was ice left on the windows of the Cafe Parisian further aft? Also I recall survivors in the smoking room who felt the ice passing under their feet as the ship possibly grounded over the ice. Regarding the second iceberg. Didn't the Carpathia see several icebergs in the immediate area in the morning that were close? Do we really have any guarantee that the lookouts were telling the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth? Fleet and Lee were inches apart yet their testimonies were widely different concerning the density of the haze and what effect it had in their ability to detect the ice. Hichens' account doesn't match Boxhall's and Boxhall's account kept changing again and again. I just find the generally accepted theory of the collision to be slightly odd. As Mr. Lightoller would later publish:

"In Washington it was of little consequence, but in London it was very necessary to keep one's hand on the whitewash brush. Sharp questions that needed careful answers if one was to avoid a pitfall, carefully and subtly dug, leading to a pinning down of blame onto someone's luckless shoulders.....A washing of dirty linen would help no one.......The Board of Trade was holding an enquiry into the loss of the ship, hence the whitewash brush. Personally I had no desire that blame should be attributed either to the Board of Trade or the White Star Line, though in all conscience it was a difficult task.......I think in the end the Board of Trade and the White Star Line won.....I know when it was all over I felt more like a legal doormat than a mail boat officer."

I think his statement really does cast doubt on the testimony from the key witnesses e.g. The lookouts, Hichens, and Boxhall.


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Although I don't have any solid proof, I think it would be silly to assume that there weren't any icebergs nearby, as so many were see in the morning.
 
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Does anyone know what the point was when Smith and Murdoch stood on the port and starboard bridge wings after the engines were restarted?
 

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