I want to put up for discussion whether the ship's time was aligned with longitude time of her noon position.

Some testimonies are suitable to create doubt:

3rd Officer Lightoller said to Senator Smith, that Titanic disappeared at 2.20 ship's time. The clocks were not set back, because they had something else to think off. His watch was adjusted to ship's time of midnight Saturday.

2nd officer Lightoller joined in to give give supplementary information:

Mr. PITMAN. They are corrected in the forenoon, perhaps half a minute or a minute; that is all.

Senator SMITH. What is that, Mr. Lightoller?

Mr. LIGHTOLLER. The clocks are set at midnight, but that is for the approximate noon position of the following day. Therefore Sunday noon the clocks will be accurate.

Senator SMITH. That is Mr. Lightoller, the second officer. (To the witness What was the Greenwich time compared with the ship's time?

Mr. PITMAN. I can not say.

Senator SMITH. Can you say, Mr. Lightoller?

Mr. LIGHTOLLER. I can give you the Greenwich time.

Senator SMITH. I wish you would.

Mr. LIGHTOLLER. 5.47 - 2.20 - 5.47 Greenwich mean time: 2.20 apparent time of ship.

5.47 GMT corresponds with 0.47 NYT. That would mean that ship's time was 1h 33 minutes fast of EST.

Lightoller beeing asked about his duty times said:

16838. You would have finished your morning watch by then? - I should.

16839. And you would be off duty? - Yes. I may incidentally mention the fact that I should be on the bridge between a quarter to 12 and a minute or two past 12 taking the noon position; I should be there with the Commander and the Chief and First Officers.

Marconi operator Harold Bride said:

Senator SMITH. Did you have a watch or clock in your room?

Mr. BRIDE. We had two clocks, sir.

Senator SMITH. Were they both running?

Mr. BRIDE. Yes, sir; one was keeping New York time and the other was keeping ship's time.

Senator FLETCHER. The difference was about 1 hour and 55 minutes?

Mr. BRIDE. There was about 2 hours difference between the two.

.....

It is possible to reconstruct Titanic's noon position and therewith ship's time for this longitude.

Based on the evidence of 5th officer Lowe Titanic's position at Sunday noon was 126 miles before the corner. The course was south 60,5° west.

The noon position is calculated to 43°02' North and 44°31' West.

The correct ship's time for this longitude would be 2 hours 2 minutes fast of EST.

**To summarize the evidences above:**

Ship's time derived from noon position: 2 h 2 minutes fast of EST.

Bride: 1 h 55 minutes fast of EST.

--conclusion: ship's time was not corrected in the forenoon as stated by Pitman.

Pitman: Clocks were not set back, but

Lightoller said: 5.47 - 2.20 - 5.47 Greenwich mean time: 2.20 apparent time of ship.

--ship's time 1 h 33 minutes fast of EST.

Supposed this 1 h 33 minutes was the result of a clock set back which according to Pitman did not take place the ship's time before Alteration would be 1 h 33 minutes + 23 minutes equaling 1 h 56 minutes. At least this is nearly consistent with 1 h 55 which we got from Bride. Unfortunately this 1 h 55 minutes was proposed by Senator Smith, Bride just confirmed "about two hours".

There is a difference of 6 or 7 minutes between correct longitude time and the time which we can derive from Bride and Lightoller. When we allow an uncertainty of one knot the noon position found next day may be 25 miles before of after the one precalculated. Half a longitude corresponds with 2 minutes, so the difference should not exceed 2 minutes, but we find a difference of 6 or 7 minutes.

**Now my first question I want to ask to those who are familiar with astronomical navigation:**

If really ship's time at Sunday April 14 was just 1 h 55 instead of 2 h 2 min fast of EST, the navigators would have observed the zenith of the sun at 11.53 ship's time. Luckily the time equation, the difference between mean and true longitude time was only a few seconds at April 14, so we can leave that aside.

11.53 happens to be in the middle of the interval given by Lightoller, a quarter to 12 and 2 minutes after 12.

When navigators take noon observations, do they stop their takes as soon as they have found the zenith,

or do they take some points after the zenith as well to have some couples of points before and after the zenith?