When and where did Smith know the ship was doomed?

B-rad

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That's the conundrum I speak of in post 133. Had smith known early that the ship was doomed based on what the boatswain said and what the article stated why did it take so long for the CQD. And launch of boats?
 

Jim Currie

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Hello Brad.

The question in this thread is in 2 parts... "When?" and "Where?" If we know for sure the answer to the first part, then the second part is a cakewalk.

I have often been criticised for my interpretation of Boxhall's 1 hour 33 minute difference answer at the US Inquiry. However if I am right, then Boxhall simply got that answer by subtracting 3 hours 22 minutes from 4 hours 55 minutes. He and the others worked in GMT and what he is telling everyone with that answer is that when the ship hit the iceberg, her clocks were 3 hours 22 minutes SLOW of GMT. This means that since they were 2 hours 58 minutes SLOW of GMT at Noon that day, the ship's clocks had been retarded 24 minutes before impact. Now consider my last answer in terms of GMT. The results speak for themselves.
Date 15th April.
03-02 GMT: Impact.
03-07 GMT: (Impact+5) Boxhall below on first inspection.. QM Olliver below to find Carpenter... Carpenter sounding around. Bride awakens and learns about the accident....gets ready to relieve Phillips.
03-10 GMT:.(Impact + 8) Boxhall reports to the bridge then goes below again, meets Carpenter on way to the bridge to report to captain. (Carpenter has called the next Watch of QMs, since QM Olliver did not have time to do so).
03-12 GMT: (Impact + 10) Carpenter reports to Smith.. Smith orders all hands called then works the first distress position and takes it to the W/O.
03-18 GMT:( Impact + 15) Hands muster on fore-deck. Boxhall and Mail Clerk report flooding of the Mail Room. Boxhall ordered to call the Officers, Smith takes first distress position to the W/O. Boxhall calls Pitman (Who has already noted it is almost time to go on duty), Lightoller and Lowe.
03-20 GMT.. (Impact +17) Boxhall goes round the boat deck loosening the slip knots on the boat cover laces and heads for the Chartroom to work a distress position.
03-21 GMT(Impact + 19)... Lightoller on deck...Steam venting...Crew start to arrive on the boat deck.
03-22 GMT(Impact + 20).. QM Hichens relieved by QM Perkis in the wheelhouse. Finished with the wheel and both men go to help with boat
preparation. Fleet and Lee relieved in the Crow's nest...Lee finds all hands up at the boat deck when he comes down from the nest.
03-25 GMT...(Impact + 23).. Boxhall works distress position, takes it to the W/O then returns to bridge to be advised of approaching vessel.
03-42 GMT(Impact + 40.. Approaching vessel much nearer... Boxhall suggests sending up signals to attract attention... Smith agrees.
03-44 GMT(Impact + 42.. No. 7 Lifeboat launched
03-45 GMT(Impact + 45... QM Rowe see No, 7 off the starboard side and phones the bridge. Boxhall answers and tells him to bring 2 boxes of detonators for the signals.
04-07 GMT(Impact + 1hr. 5 min... First signal fired...Boxhall and Rowe commence signalling the vessel on the port bow using the morse lamp. (Time on board Californian = 00-57 am).

Note: Under normal circumstances, the Watches were due to change at 03-22 am GMT on April 15th.


Have fun!
 
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Thomas C.

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Note: Under normal circumstances, the Watches were due to change at 03-22 am GMT on April 15th.
How you then explain this comment?

1041. What was that you heard about the boats?
- I heard the Captain say "Get all the boats out and serve out the belts." That was after 12.
1042. I am rather anxious to get the time if I can?
- I could not barely tell you the time.
1043. That is enough - as near as you can; it was after 12?
- Yes, the Captain then looked at the commutator and he found that the ship was carrying a list to starboard.
1044. And were those all the orders you heard until you were relieved from the wheel?
- Yes.
 

Jim Currie

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How you then explain this comment?

1041. What was that you heard about the boats?
- I heard the Captain say "Get all the boats out and serve out the belts." That was after 12.
1042. I am rather anxious to get the time if I can?
- I could not barely tell you the time.
1043. That is enough - as near as you can; it was after 12?
- Yes, the Captain then looked at the commutator and he found that the ship was carrying a list to starboard.
1044. And were those all the orders you heard until you were relieved from the wheel?
- Yes.
Hichens did not know if the clocks had been altered or not. In the following, i have amended my last post to illustrated what I believe happened that night. Ship times are shown in red.
14th April - 15th April.
Midnight - ..2-58 am GMT...Clocks retarded 24 minutes.
11-36 pm - .2-58 am GMT.
11-40 pm - .3-02 am GMT...Impact.
11-45 pm - .03-07 GMT: (Impact+5) Boxhall below on first inspection.. QM Olliver below to find Carpenter... Carpenter sounding around. Bride awakens and learns about the accident....gets ready to relieve Phillips.
11-46 pm - . 3-08 am GMT.. Impact + 6...All Stop on the engines...ship comes to a complete halt.
11-48 pm - . 03-10 GMT:.(Impact + 8) Boxhall reports to the bridge then goes below again, meets Carpenter on way to the bridge to report to captain. (Carpenter has called the next Watch of QMs, since QM Olliver did not have time to do so).
11-50 pm - . 03-12 GMT: (Impact + 10) Carpenter reports to Smith.. Smith orders all hands called then works the first distress position and takes it to the W/O.
11-55 pm - . 03-18 GMT:( Impact + 15) Hands muster on fore-deck. Boxhall and Mail Clerk report flooding of the Mail Room. Boxhall ordered to call the Officers, Smith takes first distress position to the W/O. Boxhall calls Pitman (Who has already noted it is almost time to go on duty), Lightoller and Lowe.
11-57 pm - . 03-20 GMT.. (Impact +17) Boxhall goes round the boat deck loosening the slip knots on the boat cover laces and heads for the Chartroom to work a distress position.
11-59 pm - . 03-21 GMT(Impact + 19)... Lightoller on deck...Steam venting...Crew start to arrive on the boat deck.
Midnight - ...03-22 GMT(Impact + 20).. QM Hichens relieved by QM Perkis in the wheelhouse. Finished with the wheel and both men go to help with boat preparation. Fleet and Lee relieved in the Crow's nest...Lee finds all hands up at the boat deck when he comes down from the nest. NOTE: QM Perkis stated "I stayed there [in his cabin] until I though it was time to turn out to relieve the deck at 12 o'clock."
00-03 am -
. 03-25 GMT...(Impact + 23).. Boxhall works distress position, takes it to the W/O then returns to bridge to be advised of approaching vessel.
00-10 am - . 03-42 GMT(Impact + 40.. Approaching vessel much nearer... Boxhall suggests sending up signals to attract attention... Smith agrees.
00-12 am - . 03-44 GMT(Impact + 42.. No. 7 Lifeboat launched
00-15 am - . 03-45 GMT(Impact + 45... QM Rowe see No, 7 off the starboard side and phones the bridge. Boxhall answers and tells him to bring 2 boxes of detonators for the signals.
00-45 am - . 04-07 GMT(Impact + 1hr. 5 min... First signal fired...Boxhall and Rowe commence signalling the vessel on the port bow using the morse lamp. (Time on board Californian = 00-57 am).

Note: !: Under normal circumstances, the Watches were due to change at 03-22 am GMT on April 15th. QM Perkis may have been a few minutes late depending on what timepiece he was consulting.
Note 2: Junior W/O Bride was due to relieve Phillips 2 hours early that night. It is ridiculous to assume that the two of them would not also have shared the clock change. Consequently, Bride would have served 2 hours and 23 minutes more on duty had they not hit the iceberg.

Now do you see the picture?
 

Thomas C.

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Now do you see the picture?
I see Jim, but let me clarify my previous question.

Hichens was standing by the wheel, at the time of collision. 4 minutes before that, came midnight of april 14 which was changed to 11 36. If Hichens meant this midnight then his answers are without sense, because impact also happend after midnight. From the other side at midnight april 15 he was relieved by Perkis. The midnight he meant had to happen after the collsion and before he was relieved.
 
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Thomas C. -- The explanation is quite easy. Time setbacks. Titanic "earned" 47 extra minutes that day steaming west (toward the sun). This means that April 14th was to me 47 minutes longer than the conventional land-based day of precisely 24 hours. This means that 12 o'clock in April 14th time was not "midnight." Instead, true midnight would come at 12:47. This time was neither AM nor PM as both had been used prior during the day. To avoid confusion, let's drop the AM/PM conventions and use 24 hour time (military time in the US). True midnight was to come not at 2400, but 2447.

2400 (standard day) + 47 extra minutes = 2447

Those extra minutes had to be accounted for prior to midnight marking the start of day/date April 15th. And, by convention true midnight had to occur exacly 12 hours prior to "Local apparent noon" (high noon on land) for the ship on the 15th. Adding to the confusion of landlocked researchers was the need to split the 47 minutes more-or-less evenly between the Starboard and Port Watches of the crew. To do this the time had to be set back in two steps, each of about 23 minutes. Thus, the crew's "midnight" change of watch was not to come at 2447, but rather halfway between 2400 & 2447 or at 2423 hours.

2400 + 47/2 = 2423 Crew Change Of Watch measured in April 14th time.

The familiar 11:40 PM for the time of the accident is obviously measured in Crew Time set back 23 minutes. Thus, if we add those minutes back, we get 2403 as the time of impact. This means when steel met ice the Starboard Watch had worked off the first 3 minutes of its extra duty that night.

Hichens trick was to last until crew change -- crew "midnight," or 2423 hours in April 14th time. And, from his testimony we learn that is exactly what happened. He was relieved exactly at crew change, even though by then the circumstances were not ordinary. He and the other hands of the Starboard Watch were kept on deck as the sinking became an "all hands" evolution. So, Hichens did not stand at the wheel for 43 minutes after the accident (20 + 23 min). Rather, he was on the grating for only about 20 additional minutes.

11:40 o'clock Crew time + 20 minutes = "midnight change of watch" at 2423 hours in April 14th time.

One alleged "fact" about the sinking is that it took about 2 hours 40 minutes from impact to taffrail under. This is a total falsehood as proven be converting the accident to the same April 14th time reference as Boxhall and others used to note the disappearance of the ship. Remember, 11:40 o'clock for the crew was 2403 in ship's time based on local apparent noon, April 14th. And the 2:20 time was not 2:20 AM, but rather 2620 hrs in April 14th time. Subtracting the first from the last, we get:

2620 - 2403 = 2 hrs. 17 minutes, near enough to 2 hrs 20 minutes.

The situation with Hichens and his time at the wheel illustrates the need to know the time reference being use. The most common for events around the accident is Crew Time. Overall, times are mostly given in April 14th hours. And, for passengers who set the watch back 47 minutes at bedtime (to be accurate in the morning) the reference is actually noon, April 15th. The best way to determine the reference is to look at times given for a cluster of events. With a little common sense the references will become obvious.

-- David G. Brown
 

Jim Currie

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I see Jim, but let me clarify my previous question.

Hichens was standing by the wheel, at the time of collision. 4 minutes before that, came midnight of april 14 which was changed to 11 36. If Hichens meant this midnight then his answers are without sense, because impact also happend after midnight. From the other side at midnight april 15 he was relieved by Perkis. The midnight he meant had to happen after the collsion and before he was relieved.
I would caution you not to take too much notice of times quoted by QM Hichens. He could not have known exactly when the impact took place. The wheelhouse clock was behind him and he was in total darkness except for a muted light over the course-board and the light from under the compass card. It would have been hard for him to see his hand in front of him, let-alone the hands of a clock which was above and four feet behind where he was standing. in fact he would have had absolutely no idea of time. When the emergency helm order came, he would have been carrying out his steering duty like an automaton and would have reacted instinctively without thought for time or anything else for that matter. Once the ship had come to a standstill. he would have been required to stay at his station beside the wheel and his mate, QM Olliver would have stationed himself behind him to await orders. We know that another helm order came shortly after the first and that those in the wheelhouse were told to record times of specific incidents and orders. These had to have been recorded retrospectively, since the Movement Book and Scrap Log would not have been in the wheelhouse at the time of impact.
As a matter of interest, times recorded retrospectively would have been of impact, helm and engine orders. Since orders were given subsequent to impact, these would be accurately recorded by Moody and QM Olliver and include further helm orders ,the final engine movements ( which would have been STOP and then STANDBY) and the ship's heading at that time.
 
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Jim Currie

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Thomas C. -- The explanation is quite easy. Time setbacks. Titanic "earned" 47 extra minutes that day steaming west (toward the sun). This means that April 14th was to me 47 minutes longer than the conventional land-based day of precisely 24 hours. This means that 12 o'clock in April 14th time was not "midnight." Instead, true midnight would come at 12:47. This time was neither AM nor PM as both had been used prior during the day. To avoid confusion, let's drop the AM/PM conventions and use 24 hour time (military time in the US). True midnight was to come not at 2400, but 2447.

2400 (standard day) + 47 extra minutes = 2447

Those extra minutes had to be accounted for prior to midnight marking the start of day/date April 15th. And, by convention true midnight had to occur exacly 12 hours prior to "Local apparent noon" (high noon on land) for the ship on the 15th. Adding to the confusion of landlocked researchers was the need to split the 47 minutes more-or-less evenly between the Starboard and Port Watches of the crew. To do this the time had to be set back in two steps, each of about 23 minutes. Thus, the crew's "midnight" change of watch was not to come at 2447, but rather halfway between 2400 & 2447 or at 2423 hours.

2400 + 47/2 = 2423 Crew Change Of Watch measured in April 14th time.

The familiar 11:40 PM for the time of the accident is obviously measured in Crew Time set back 23 minutes. Thus, if we add those minutes back, we get 2403 as the time of impact. This means when steel met ice the Starboard Watch had worked off the first 3 minutes of its extra duty that night.

Hichens trick was to last until crew change -- crew "midnight," or 2423 hours in April 14th time. And, from his testimony we learn that is exactly what happened. He was relieved exactly at crew change, even though by then the circumstances were not ordinary. He and the other hands of the Starboard Watch were kept on deck as the sinking became an "all hands" evolution. So, Hichens did not stand at the wheel for 43 minutes after the accident (20 + 23 min). Rather, he was on the grating for only about 20 additional minutes.

11:40 o'clock Crew time + 20 minutes = "midnight change of watch" at 2423 hours in April 14th time.

One alleged "fact" about the sinking is that it took about 2 hours 40 minutes from impact to taffrail under. This is a total falsehood as proven be converting the accident to the same April 14th time reference as Boxhall and others used to note the disappearance of the ship. Remember, 11:40 o'clock for the crew was 2403 in ship's time based on local apparent noon, April 14th. And the 2:20 time was not 2:20 AM, but rather 2620 hrs in April 14th time. Subtracting the first from the last, we get:

2620 - 2403 = 2 hrs. 17 minutes, near enough to 2 hrs 20 minutes.

The situation with Hichens and his time at the wheel illustrates the need to know the time reference being use. The most common for events around the accident is Crew Time. Overall, times are mostly given in April 14th hours. And, for passengers who set the watch back 47 minutes at bedtime (to be accurate in the morning) the reference is actually noon, April 15th. The best way to determine the reference is to look at times given for a cluster of events. With a little common sense the references will become obvious.

-- David G. Brown
Aaar then, Davy lad!

As you probably know, Day-workers on a ship do not share any time changes.
In the case of Titanic, the clocks were to be set back a total of 47 minutes that night. Had that taken place, all Day Workers would have enjoyed an extra 47 minutes in bed. Because the clocks would have been fully set back by 27 minutes as they slept.
However, if they were due on duty each morning at 6 am and they did not touch their watches and clocks before retiring... their personal time pieces would read 6-47 am and they would have an apoplexy. So, in order to ensure they went on duty at the correct time the next day by their personal time pieces, they each would set them back by the planned clock change so that they would read 6 am when they went on duty. To determine the interval between impact and sinking all we need is the evidence from 2 such fully adjusted clocks and we have it.
A: For time ofImpact: 17 year old Assistant cook, first class galley, John Collins:
"exactly at a quarter past 11 I was wakened up. I had a clock by me, by my bed, and my clock was five minutes fast, and it was exactly a quarter past 11 when the ship struck the iceberg, " Collins explained that his clock actually showed 11-20 pm.
B: For time of sinking: Annie Robinson, First class Stewardess on the "Titanic,"
" I looked at my watch when the ship went down and it was twenty minutes to two. That was by altered time when we were in the boat "
1-40 am minus 11-15 pm = 2 hours 25 minutes.
 

Jim Currie

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Mr. HICHENS.
That is all, sir. Then the first officer told the other quartermaster standing by to take the time, and told one of the junior officers to make a note of that in the logbook. That was at 20 minutes of 12; sir.
That is total rubbish! the impact took place at 11-40 pm ("20 minutes of 12") At that time, QM Olliver was on his way back from the Standard Compass. When the ship stopped, he was sent down to find the Carpenter. That was normal procedure after a collision and would be done at the time of, or shortly after, the last engine order.
Here is more nonsense by that same man:
"I heard the telegraph bell ring; also give the order "Hard astarboard," with the sixth officer standing by me to see the duty carried out and the quartermaster standing by my left side. Repeated the order, "Hard astarboard. The helm is hard over, sir."
Who was the "quartermaster standing by my left side."?
 

George Jacub

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How you then explain this comment?

1041. What was that you heard about the boats?
- I heard the Captain say "Get all the boats out and serve out the belts." That was after 12.
1042. I am rather anxious to get the time if I can?
- I could not barely tell you the time.
1043. That is enough - as near as you can; it was after 12?
- Yes, the Captain then looked at the commutator and he found that the ship was carrying a list to starboard.
1044. And were those all the orders you heard until you were relieved from the wheel?
- Yes.

Fireman Harry Senior heard the same order. As related in The Scotsman, Monday, April 29, 1912:

"I was asleep in my bunk at the time of the collision... About half an hour afterwards an order came to man the boats and put lifebelts on."

I think researchers agree that the order for lifebelts came after midnight . There's never been any dispute about that. And half an hour after the collision means the order came around 12:10 a.m., right around the time Lightoller was asking the Captain for permission to load the passengers into the boats.
 
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George Jacub

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No I don't. I accept the principle that a first hand account has much greater weight than a second hand account. And the first hand account from Boxhall has more detail about that conversation with Smith that proves that it had to have happened some time after the men were well established in their uncovering of the boats. And the men were seen first coming on deck at midnight when 8 bells were struck.
Boxhall gave a first-hand account to Senator Burton, an official member of the Senate Inquiry.

The evidence is that the crewmen got the order to clear the boats at about 11:55 p.m. It would take them a minute or minute-and-a-half to reach the boat deck where they would have found Lightoller hard at work stripping the cover off No.4. He directed some to take over at No,. 4 and others to clear the other forward port boats.
Any mention of the men being "well established in their uncovering of the boats" is a red herring. Boxhall said the Captain asked him "about the men going on with their work" and his response was,"Yes, they are carrying on all right."
 
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Midnight - ..2-58 am GMT...Clocks retarded 24 minutes.
11-36 pm - .2-58 am GMT.
11-40 pm - .3-02 am GMT...Impact.
The only ship board clocks on the Magneta time circuits that were put back were the master clocks in the chart room. At the time these were put back, about 12:00 each night, the 48 slave clocks would show the time on masters just before they were put back. Slave clocks could not be set backward. They were impulse devices that received alternating current impulses once per minute from master. When the master was put back, the slave clocks on the same series circuit would show the time that was on the master clock when it was put back. They remained showing that time until the master clock return to the time that was showing when it was put back, and then all the slave clocks would go forward once again starting with the next minute. Thus, if there was an adjustment made at midnight putting the master back in time, the slave clocks throughout the vessel would have showed a time close to 12:00,the time the master was first put back. The fact remains that people were still up in several public places like the 1st and 2nd class smoking rooms which closed at midnight, and those rooms would have been closed and their lights put out if the clocks had been put back before the accident. But those that were in those rooms when accident happened for the most part cited the time of the accident between 11:40 and 11:45. That would not have been the case had there been any adjustments beforehand.
 
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Aaar then, Davy lad!

As you probably know, Day-workers on a ship do not share any time changes.
In the case of Titanic, the clocks were to be set back a total of 47 minutes that night. Had that taken place, all Day Workers would have enjoyed an extra 47 minutes in bed. Because the clocks would have been fully set back by 27 minutes as they slept.
However, if they were due on duty each morning at 6 am and they did not touch their watches and clocks before retiring... their personal time pieces would read 6-47 am and they would have an apoplexy. So, in order to ensure they went on duty at the correct time the next day by their personal time pieces, they each would set them back by the planned clock change so that they would read 6 am when they went on duty. To determine the interval between impact and sinking all we need is the evidence from 2 such fully adjusted clocks and we have it.
A: For time ofImpact: 17 year old Assistant cook, first class galley, John Collins:
"exactly at a quarter past 11 I was wakened up. I had a clock by me, by my bed, and my clock was five minutes fast, and it was exactly a quarter past 11 when the ship struck the iceberg, " Collins explained that his clock actually showed 11-20 pm.
B: For time of sinking: Annie Robinson, First class Stewardess on the "Titanic,"
" I looked at my watch when the ship went down and it was twenty minutes to two. That was by altered time when we were in the boat "
1-40 am minus 11-15 pm = 2 hours 25 minutes.
Thanks again for the following quote
"As you know , Day Workers on a ship do not share any time changes."
That sets my mind at ease from any guilt of the way the operations of our little division on the ship on which I served conducted our business
No time changes as well as no watch standing.
 
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Sam is correct that the slave clocks could not be run backward to reset them on a westward passage. So, it was necessary to stop them for a period of time commensurate with the setback of the night which was 47 minutes. That's rather a long time between "tick" and the next "tock." But technological development does not run at the pace of human desire. Everyone aboard would have had to put up with this unpleasant situation.

Now, let's assume that the slaves were stopped at 2400 in April 14th time. The day still had 47 minutes to run, so that's the "tick" to "tock" duration. At 2447 the slaves would have been restarted at 0000 hours April 15th which is the same moment in time as 2447 April 14th. A simple interrupt switch could have stopped the slave clocks while the master clocks continued ticking. But, they couldn't be set back, either. So why bother with a switch. Simply shut down the whole mechanism for 47 minutes and be done with it.

. I've proposed shutting off the slaves driven by one master clock for 23 minutes to accommodate the crew's change of watch, but Sam is adamant the placement of slave units was sort of higgledy-piggledy with no discernible pattern throughout the ship. This means there could not have been one circuit for crew time. I find this hard to believe simply because of the state of the art in electro-mechanical devices in 1912. But that's not worth an argument. All that was necessar necessary was for the engine room and bridge to have matching clock times for logging purposes.

The mechanism of time keeping is insignificant compared to the need to have the crew change of watch come halfway through the total 47 extra minutes. This is the only way that both Watches could have shared equally in serving the extra time. That puts change of watch at 2423 hours in April 14th time. And, when the setback is accounted for, the famous 11:40 PM time of impact becomes virtually 2400 hours. The time for crew change of watch could have been kept on a windup Big Ben alarm clock or, for that matter, a sand glass.

2400 + 47 extra minutes = 2447 Midnight change of day/date to April 15th
2447 - 24 minutes (half of extra minutes = Change of watch (2423 time when Hichens said he was relieved)

It appears that Hichens claim to have worked until 23 minutes after 12 was correct. Now, whether he got that by reading a clock face in the wheelhouse or from witness coaching seminar...I don't know.

-- David G. Brown
 

Jim Currie

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First. let's cut-out the semantics and cut-to-the-chase. The expression "set-back the clock" simply means to alter the time by retarding the time shown on the dial. Dave is spot-on.
On my ships, to retard the clocks throughout the ship, we simply stopped the automatic system for the required amount of retardation (another name for set-back) or set the system back manually.
Having done this very thing manually on a cargo ship and and using central time control on a passenger ship, allow me to explain how it was done on my ships.
The clock on a ship is altered using the Chronometer which normally keeps perfect time (when known error is applied). Therefore, shortly before an alteration was due to take place, the master clock was checked by chronometer and adjusted if necessary.
In the case of Titanic, when the chronometer showed exactly 2-58 am April 15, the system would be stopped and the master checked to ensure it showed Midnight. Twenty four minutes later, when the chronometer read 3-22 am, the system would be re-activated at "new midnight."
It should be borne in mind that this was not the only time when the clock system would need to be adjusted back or forward. At Noon each day, exactly the same process took place after Noon sights were calculated. This was done for a very important reason which had nothing to do with serving tea at the right time or making sure the Deck Boy got a good night's sleep. It may not be appreciated, but many ships had but a single chronometer. If it was accidentally damage in any way or stopped for some reason, then the only other accurate time for navigation came from the clock in the Wheelhouse or Chart Room. However, I diverse.

The alteration of the ship's clocks in 2 stages had nothing to do with passengers and all to do with Ship crew working rotas...Day Workers, the 8 to Midnight and midnight to 4 am Watches.
The last two depended on a well-tried system which normally worked as follows:
A member of the 8 to Midnight Deck Crew would be tasked to make sure that the Midnight to 4 am Watch keepers were called at One (1) bell (not 11-45 pm... on all time pieces)15 minutes before the change of Watches. At that time, the Quartermaster on standby was usually tasked to call the Officers and the Midnight to 4 am Quartermasters.
On Titanic, under normal circumstances, when the Chronometer showed 3-07 am, QM Olliver would have rung one bell on the bridge, this would have been copied by the Lookouts. It would be heard in the forecastle and the next Watch would have been called. Any crew member who had a personal time piece would check it. However, QM Olliver was otherwise engaged and the Carpenter or Joiner called the next watch of Quartermasters. However, Moody and the lookout must have sounded 8 bells these would only have been sounded when the chronometer showed 3-22 am...Lookout lookout George Symons... UK Inquiry, Day 10: "as I was on my way to the deck, so they struck eight bells in the crow's-nest."